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Braque Grand Palais Critique Essay

Inscription: Signed [at a later date] (lower right): G Braque

Marking: watermark: A L in oval belt frame with trefoil detail

[Galerie Kahnweiler, Paris, 1912; inv. no. 1127, photo no. 1083; sold to Uhde]; Wilhelm Uhde, Paris (sequestered Uhde collection, February 13, 1915–21; Uhde sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, May 30, 1921, no. 69, as "Le compotier," sold for Fr 200, to Galerie L'Effort Moderne); [Galerie L’Effort Moderne (Léonce Rosenberg), Paris; from 1921; inv. no. 7480]; André Breton, Paris (by mid 1920s; by 1931 to Collinet ); his former wife, Simone Breton (née Simone Kahn, later Simone Collinet), Paris (1931–46; sold in 1946 to Cooper); Douglas Cooper, London (1946–d. 1984; inv. no. 156, estate no. DC 5/5); his bequest to McCarty Cooper); his partner and adopted son, William McCarty Cooper, London (1984–86; sold in November 1986 to Lauder); Leonard A. Lauder, New York (1986–13; transferred on April 8, 2013 to the Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Trust); The Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Trust, New York (2013–16; gift to MMA)

Kunsthalle Basel. "Georges Braque," April 9–May 14, 1933, no. 60 (as "Die Fruchtschale"; ill. as "Die Weintraube").

Edinburgh. Royal Scottish Academy. "G. Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings," August 18–September 15, 1956, no. 33 (as "The Fruit-dish").

London. Tate Gallery. "G. Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings," September 28–November 11, 1956, no. 33.

Cincinnati. Contemporary Arts Center. "Homage to Georges Braque," September 22–October 22, 1962, unnumbered cat. (p. 42; as "The Fruit Dish," ca. 1912).

Arts Club of Chicago. "Homage to Georges Braque," November 6–December 6, 1962, unnumbered cat.

Minneapolis. Walker Art Center. "Homage to Georges Braque," December 20, 1962–January 20, 1963, unnumbered cat.

Paris. Galerie Maeght. "Georges Braque: Papiers collés, 1912–14," May 1963, no. 7 (as "Papier collé et fusain").

Munich. Haus der Kunst. "Georges Braque," October 18–December 15, 1963, no. 37 (as "Die Fruchtschale").

Paris. Orangerie des Tuileries. "Georges Braque," October 16, 1973–January 14, 1974, no. 46.

Paris. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou. "Georges Braque: Les papiers collés," June 17–September 27, 1982, no. 1.

Washington, D.C. National Gallery of Art. "Braque: The Papiers Collés," October 31, 1982–January 16, 1983, no. 1.

London. Tate Gallery. "The Essential Cubism, 1907–1920: Braque, Picasso & their friends," April 27–July 10, 1983, extended to July 31, 1983, no. 25.

Kunstmuseum Basel. "Douglas Cooper und die Meister des Kubismus," November 22, 1987–January 17, 1988, no. 5.

London. Tate Gallery. "Douglas Cooper and the Masters of Cubism," February 3–April 4, 1988, no. 5.

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Picasso, Braque, Léger, Gris: Drawings from the Douglas Cooper Collection," June 16–July 31, 1988.

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism," September 24, 1989–January 16, 1990, unnumbered cat. (pp. 38, 244; as early September 1912).

Houston. Museum of Fine Arts. "Picasso, Braque, Gris, Léger: Douglas Cooper Collecting Cubism," October 14–December 30, 1990, no. 5 (as September 1912).

Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "Picasso, Braque, Gris, Léger: Douglas Cooper Collecting Cubism," January 31–April 21, 1991, no. 5.

New York. Pierpont Morgan Library. "New York Collects: Drawings and Watercolors, 1900–1950," May 20–August 29, 1999, no. 24.

Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. "Facets of Cubism," December 7, 2005–April 16, 2006, unnum. brochure (ill.).

Paris. Grand Palais. "Georges Braque," September 18, 2013–January 6, 2014, no. 82.

Houston. Museum of Fine Arts. "Georges Braque: A Retrospective," February 13–May 11, 2014, no. 82.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection," October 20, 2014–February 16, 2015, no. 9.

Maurice Raynal. Georges Braque: Avec 32 réproductions en phototipie. Rome, 1921, ill.

"Échos de l’Hôtel Drouot. Liste complète des prix atteints aux ventes Uhde et Kahnweiler: Vente Kahnweiler, 13 et 14 June 1921." L’Esprit Nouveau: Revue internationale illustré de l’actualité contemporaine no. 13 (1921), p. 1565, as "Le Compotier".

Maurice Raynal. Georges Braque: Avec 32 réproductions en phototipie. Rome, 1924, ill., as 1913.

Carl Einstein. Die Kunst des 20.Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1926, pp. 72, 75, 562, ill. p. 301, fig. 301, 2, as 1913.

Carl Einstein. Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts. 2nd ed. Berlin, 1928, pp. 83–84, 88–89, 560, ill. p. 301, fig. 301, 2, as 1913.

Carl Einstein. Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts. 3rd ed. Berlin, 1931, pp. 92, 99, 638, ill. p. 347, fig. 347, 2, as 1913.

George Isarlov. Georges Braque. Paris, 1932, p. 18, no. 144.

Georges Braque. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Basel. Basel, 1933, p. 18, no. 60, ill.

Carl Einstein. Georges Braque. Paris, 1934, unpaginated (list of plates), pl. XVIII, as "Le Raisins [sic]," 1911.

Thomas B. Hess. "Paste Mixed with Paint." Art News 47 (October 1948), p. 25, ill., identifies as "The Fruit Dish" and notes that it is "now lost".

Michel Seuphor. L'Art abstrait: Ses origines, ses premiers maîtres. Paris, 1949, ill. p. 130, as "Papier collé," 1909.

Henry R. Hope. Georges Braque. Exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art. New York, 1949, pp. 62, 64, ill. p. 54.

Maurice Raynal in Maurice Raynal. History of Modern Painting. Vol. 3, From Picasso to Surrealism. Geneva, 1950, p. 64, unpaginated (list of plates), ill. p. 62 (French ed., p, 209 [as "Le compotier"]), as "The Fruit Dish".

Jean Paulhan. Braque le patron. Rev. ed. Paris, 1952, p. 76.

Jean Paulhan. "La vie imagée de Georges Braque. Deuxième épisode." Arts: Beaux-Arts, Littérature, Spectacles no. 347 (February 22, 1952), p. 7, ill. (cartoon by Dominique Gascuel).

Maurice Raynal. Peinture moderne. Geneva, 1953, p. 334, ill. p. 177, as "Le compotier".

Herta Wescher. "Les collages cubistes." Art d'Aujourd'hui ser. 4, nos. 3–4 (May 1953), ill. p. 34, as "Nature morte au compotier".

John Richardson. "Au Château des cubistes." L'Oeil no. 4 (April 15, 1955), p. 21.

Maurice Gieure. Braque: Dessins. Paris, 1955, unpaginated (list of illustrations), no. 4, ill., as "Le compotier," 1913.

Michel Seuphor. "Matière à discussion." XXe Siècle no. 5 (June 1955), ill. p. 9.

Frank Elgar. "Une conquête du Cubisme: Le papier collé." XXe Siècle no. 6 (January 1956), pp. 7, 10, as "Le compotier".

G. Braque. Exh. cat., Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh. London, 1956, pp. 35–36, no. 33, pl. 21a.

Clement Greenberg. "The Pasted-Paper Revolution." Art News 57, no. 5 (September 1958), p. 48, ill. p. 46, as "The Fruit Bowl".

John Golding. "The History of Cubism, 1907–1914." PhD diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, London, 1958, pp. 158–59, 164–67, 169, 187.

Umbro Apollonio. Fauves et cubistes. Paris, 1959, p. 93, ill. p. 52, as "Composition".

John Golding. Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914. New York, 1959, pp. 103, 108, 118.

John Russell. G. Braque. London, 1959, p. 18.

John Richardson. G. Braque. Milan, 1960, pp. 14, 17, ill. p. 15, fig. 3.

John Richardson. G. Braque. Greenwich, Conn., 1961, pp. 14, 17, ill. p. 15, fig. 3.

Jean Leymarie. Braque. Geneva, 1961, pp. 57, 133, ill. p. 54 (French ed., pp. 56, 132, ill. p. 54).

"Homage to Georges Braque." Art International 6, no. 9 (November 25, 1962), ill. p. 42, as "The Fruit Dish," ca. 1912.

Homage to Georges Braque: An Exhibition to Honor the Artist on the Occasion of His Eightieth Anniversary. Exh. cat., Contemporary Arts Center. Cincinnati, 1962, ill., as "The Fruit Dish".

Pierre Cabanne. L'épopée du Cubisme. Paris, 1963, p. 182.

Douglas Cooper. Georges Braque. Exh. cat., Haus der Kunst. Munich, 1963, p. 39, no. 37, fig. 33.

Galerie Maeght. Georges Braque: Papiers collés, 1912–1914. Paris, 1963, unpaginated (checklist), no. 7, ill.

Edward F. Fry. Cubism. New York, 1966, pp. 27, 33, 190, ill. no. 38.

Robert Rosenblum. Cubism and Twentieth-Century Art. Rev. ed. (1st ed., 1960). New York, 1966, pp. 69–70, 319, ill. no. 37, as "The Fruit Dish".

François Mathey. L'arte moderna., Il Cubismo. Milan, 1967, p. 434, ill. p. 158, as "Fruttiera".

Herta Wescher. Die Collage: Geschichte eines künstlerischen Ausdrucksmittels. Cologne, 1968, pp. 22, 402, pl. 14.

John Golding. Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914. 2nd ed. Boston, 1968, pp. 104, 111, 123, pl. 49B.

Edwin Mullins. The Art of Georges Braque. New York, 1968, pp. 74, 209, ill. no. 50.

Raymond Cogniat. Braque. New York, 1970, p. 72, as "Still Life with Fruit Dish" (French ed., as "Nature morte au compotier").

Douglas Cooper. The Cubist Epoch. Exh. cat., Los Angeles County Museum of Art. London, 1970, p. 185.

Paul Waldo Schwartz. Cubism. New York, 1971, pp. 98, 209, ill. no. 65.

Marco Valsecchi and Massimo Carrà. L'opera completa di Braque dalla scomposizione cubista al recupero dell'oggetto, 1908–1929. Milan, 1971, p. 90, no. 87, ill., as "Fruttiera".

Herta Wescher. Collage. New York, 1971, pp. 22, 402, pl. 14.

William Rubin, ed. Picasso in the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art, including Remainder-Interest and Promised Gifts. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1972, p. 209, fig. 55, as "The Fruit Dish".

Jean Leymarie inGeorges Braque. Exh. cat., Orangerie des Tuileries. Paris, 1973, p. VIII.

Pierre Descargues and Massimo Carrà. Tout l'oeuvre peint de Braque, 1908–1929. Paris, 1973, p. 90, no. 87, ill.

Georges Braque. Exh. cat., Orangerie des Tuileries. Paris, 1973, pp. 32–33, no. 46, ill. p. 90.

Jean Leymarie. Jean Paulhan à travers ses peintres. Exh. cat., Grand Palais. Paris, 1974, pp. 26, 130, manuscript no. 199, ill. p. 27, ill. no. 3, as "Papier collé avec ALE et BAR".

Eddie Wolfram. History of Collage: An Anthology of Collage, Assemblage and Event Structures. New York, 1975, p. 16, ill. no. 4.

Winthrop Judkins. Fluctuant Representation in Synthetic Cubism: Picasso, Braque, Gris, 1910–1920. PhD diss., Harvard University. New York, 1976, p. 334, pl. H-B 54, ill. p. 443, as "The Fruit Bowl".

Pierre Daix and Joan Rosselet. Picasso, The Cubist Years, 1907–1916: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings and Related Works. Boston, 1979, pp. 111–14.

Lesley Blanch. "The Collectors: A Distillation of Taste. Douglas Cooper in Monte Carlo." Architectural Digest (October 1980), ill. pp. 100–101 (on display in the Monte Carlo residence of Douglas Cooper).

Nicole Worms de Romilly and Jean Laude. [Catalogue de l'œuvre de Georges Braque]. Vol. [1], Le Cubisme, fin 1907–1914. [Paris], 1982, p. 277, no. 150, ill. p. 175, as "Compotier et verre BAR".

Nadine Pouillon with Isabelle Monod-Fontaine. Braque:Œuvres de Georges Braque (1882–1963). Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou. Paris, 1982, p. 44, ill. p. 47, fig. 1.

Isabelle Monod-Fontaine with E. A. Carmean, Jr. Braque: The Papier Collés. Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Washington, D.C., 1982, pp. 88–89, no. 1, ill., pl. 9 (French ed., pp. 65–66, no. 1, ill. p. 67).

Pierre Cabanne. Le Cubisme. Paris, 1982, p. 53.

Douglas Cooper in Isabelle Monod-Fontaine with E. A. Carmean, Jr. Braque: The Papiers Collés. Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Washington, D.C., 1982, pp. 17–21.

Douglas Cooper and Gary Tinterow. The Essential Cubism: Braque, Picasso & their friends, 1907–1920. Exh. cat., Tate Gallery. London, 1983, p. 84, no. 25, ill. p. 85.

Simon Wilson. What is Cubism? Exh. brochure, Tate Gallery. London, 1983, p. 10, fig. 14.

Mark Roskill. The Interpretation of Cubism. London, 1985, p. 82, as "The Fruit Dish".

Georges Braque, 1882–1963. Exh. cat., Museu Picasso. Barcelona, 1986, p. 124, ill.

Isabelle Monod-Fontaine inGeorges Braque, 1882–1963. Exh. cat., Museu Picasso. Barcelona, 1986, p. 31.

H. H. Arnason. History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography. Ed. Daniel Wheeler. 3rd ed. Rev. New York, 1986, p. 166, fig. 226.

Dorothy M. Kosinski. Douglas Cooper and the Masters of Cubism. Exh. cat., Kunstmuseum Basel. Basel, 1987, pp. 59, 70, 198–99, no. 5, ill. p. 17 (on display in Douglas Cooper’s Château de Castille, Argilliers, France, ca. 1955), p. 71.

Herta Wescher. Die Geschichte der Collage: Vom Kubismus bis zur Gegenwart. Cologne, 1987, pp. 19, 377, fig. 10.

Serge Fauchereau. Braque. New York, 1987, p. 19.

Monika Flacke-Knoch Stephan von Wiese inAlfred Flechtheim, Sammler, Kunsthändler, Verleger: Kunstmuseum Düsseldorf: 1937. Exh. cat.Dusseldorf, 1987, p. 167.

Bernard Zurcher. Georges Braque: Life and Work. New York, 1988, pp. 8, 43, 93, 96, 102, 105, 117, 139, ill. no. 63.

John Golding. Cubism: A History and an Analysis 1907–1914. 3rd rev. ed. (1st ed., 1959; 2nd ed. 1968). Cambridge, Mass., 1988, pp. 104, 110–11, 123, 221, fig. 49B.

William Rubin, ed. Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1989, pp. 28–29, 38, 40, ill. pp. 38, 244 (German ed., 1990, pp. 22–23, 32, ill., and fig. 270 (French ed., 1990, and Spanish ed., 1991, pp. 22–23, 32, ill., and ill. p. 238).

Judith Cousins inPicasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1989, p. 403 (German ed., 1990, French ed., 1990, and Spanish ed., 1991, p. 381).

Christopher Lyon. "A Shared Vision: An Introduction to 'Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism'." MoMA 2, no. 2 (Autumn 1989), p. 12, ill.

Emily Bardack Kies inPicasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism. Exh. brochure, Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1989, unpaginated, ill.

Leo J. O'Donovan. "To Find Originality." America 161, no. 13 (November 4, 1989), p. 300.

Dorothy M. Kosinski. Picasso, Braque, Gris, Léger: Douglas Cooper Collecting Cubism. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts. Houston, 1990, p. 60, no. 5.

Karen Wilkin. Georges Braque. New York, 1991, pp. 52–53, ill. no. 31.

Sylvie Coëllier. "Picasso: pointillisme et cubisme." Revue de l'Art no. 92 (1991), p. 71 n. 21.

Pepe Karmel. "Appendix 2: Notes on the Dating of Works." Picasso and Braque: A Symposium. Ed. Lynn Zelevansky. New York, 1992, p. 334, as early September 1912.

Christine Poggi. In Defiance of Painting: Cubism, Futurism, and the Invention of Collage. New Haven, 1992, pp. 3, 5, 98, 104, fig. 2.

Diane Waldman. Collage, Assemblage, and the Found Object. New York, 1992, pp. 25, 27, 29, pl. 28.

Edward F. Fry. "Convergence of Traditions: The Cubism of Picasso and Braque." Picasso and Braque: A Symposium. Ed. Lynn Zelevansky. New York, 1992, pp. 100, 105, n. 25, fig. 10.

Edward F. Fry et al. "Convergence of Traditions: The Cubism of Picasso and Braque. Discussion." Picasso and Braque: A Symposium. Ed. Lynn Zelevansky. New York, 1992, pp. 121, 124, fig. 16.

Christine Poggi. "Braque's Early 'Papiers Collés': The Certainties of Faux Bois." Picasso and Braque: A Symposium. Ed. Lynn Zelevansky. New York, 1992, p. 138, fig. 8.

Lisa Dennison inArt of this Century: The Guggenheim Museum and Its Collection. New York, 1993, p. 109, fig. 80, as early September 1912.

Francis Frascina. "Realism and Ideology: An Introduction to Semiotics and Cubism." Primitivism, Cubism, Abstraction: The Early Twentieth Century. Ed. Charles Harrison, Francis Frascina, and Gill Perry. New Haven, 1993, p. 165, pl. 143, as "Compotier et verre 'Bar'".

Villads Villadsen inPicasso & Braque: Kubisme, 1907–1914. Ed. Villads Villadsen et al. Exh. cat., Statens Museum for Kunst. Copenhagen, 1993, ill. p. 22.

Elizabeth Cowling. "The Fine Art of Cutting: Picasso's 'Papiers Collés' and Constructions in 1912–14." Apollo 142 (November 1995), p. 18, n. 12.

John Richardson with the collaboration of Marilyn McCully. A Life of Picasso. Vol. 2, 1907–1917. New York, 1996, ill. p. 249.

Carl Einstein. Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts. Ed. Uwe Fleckner and Thomas W. Gaehtgens. New ed. (1st ed., 1931). Berlin, 1996, pp. 130, 137, 775, ill. p. 480, fig. 480.2, as 1911–12, by Uwe Fleckner and Thomas W. Gaehtgens; as 1913 by Carl Einstein.

H. H. Arnason. History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography. Ed. Marla F. Prather and Daniel Wheeler. Rev. 4th ed. (1st ed., 1968). New York, 1998, pp. 194–95, fig. 211.

William M. Griswold. "Morgan Library: Dessins du 20e siècle." Connaissance des Arts no. 561 (May 1999), pp. 54, 59, ill. no. 5, as "Coupe de fruits et Verre".

John Richardson. The Sorcerer's Apprentice: Picasso, Provence, and Douglas Cooper. New York, 1999, p. 187.

Marilyn McCully inNew York Collects: Drawings and Watercolors, 1900–1950. Exh. cat., Pierpont Morgan Library. New York, 1999, p. 78, no. 24, ill. p. 79.

The Collection of Eleanore and Daniel Saidenberg. Sotheby's, New York. November 10, 1999, p. 28, fig. 1, under no. 7.

Jean Monneret. Catalogue raisonné du Salon des Indépendants, 1884–2000: Les Indépendants dans l'histoire de l'art. Paris, 2000, ill. p. 84.

Mark Antliff and Patricia Leighten. Cubism and Culture. New York, 2001, pp. 164–65, 172, ill. no. 141.

Lisa Florman. "Re-fusing Collage: Juan Gris's 'Still Life'." Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 75, no. 2 (2001), pp. 9–10, fig. 4, as "Fruit Dish".

Elizabeth Cowling. Picasso: Style and Meaning. London, 2002, pp. 238, 248, ill. no. 204.

Lisa Florman. "The Flattening of 'Collage'." October 102 (Autumn 2002), pp. 71–73, ill.

Pepe Karmel. Picasso and the Invention of Cubism. New Haven, 2003, pp. 105–6, 152–53, 155, figs. 134, 206.

Jodi Hauptman. Drawing from the Modern, 1880–1945. Exh. cat.New York, 2004, p. 33, fig. 10.

Pepe Karmel inIl Cubismo: Rivoluzione e tradizione. Ed. Michael Raeburn. Exh. cat., Palazzo dei Diamanti. Ferrara, 2004, pp. 41, 49, fig. 18.

H. H. Arnason. History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography. Ed. Peter Kalb. Rev. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2004, p. 173, fig. 10.22, as September 1912.

Facets of Cubism. Exh. brochure, Museum of Fine Arts. Boston, 2005, unnumbered brochure, ill.

Holland Cotter. "When Cubism Fractured Art's Delicate World." New York Times (December 30, 2005), p. E38, ill.

Alex Danchev. Georges Braque: A Life. London, 2005, pp. xiii, 151, 229–30, pl. 9 (following p. 176).

Jodi Hauptman. Master Drawings from the Museum of Modern Art: Cézanne to Pollock. Exh. cat., Shanghai Museum. New York and Shanghai, 2006, pp. 30, 85, fig. 10.

Jean-Claude Lebensztejn inCubist Picasso. Exh. cat., Musée National Picasso. Paris, 2007, p. 44, fig. 9.

Bernice B. Rose, ed. Picasso, Braque, and Early Film in Cubism. Exh. cat., PaceWildenstein. New York, 2007, ill. p. 119.

Heike Eipeldauer inGeorges Braque. Ed. Ingried Brugger, Heike Eipeldauer, and Caroline Messensee. Exh. cat., Vienna Bank Austria Kunstforum. Ostfildern, 2008, p. 41, fig. 5.

Faye Ran. A History of Installation Art and the Development of New Art Forms: Technology and the Hermeneutics of Time and Space in Modern and Postmodern Art from Cubism to Installation. New York, 2009, p. 62.

H. H. Arnason and Elizabeth C. Mansfield. History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2010, pp. 175–76, fig. 8.23.

Lisa Florman Emory College of Arts and Sciences. "Different Facets of Analytic Cubism." Nonsite.org: Agency and Experience. no. 5, Spring 2012, fig. 5 (http://nonsite.org).

Judith Brodie. Shock of the News. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C., 2012, p. 3.

Brigitte Leal inGeorges Braque, 1882–1963. Ed. Brigitte Leal, Gary Tinterow, and Alison de Lima Greene. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Galeries nationales. Paris, 2013, p. 76.

Lauriane Manneville inGeorges Braque, 1882–1963. Ed. Brigitte Leal, Gary Tinterow, and Alison de Lima Greene. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Galeries nationales. Paris, 2013, p. 274.

Elizabeth Cowling. "What the Wallpapers Say: Picasso's Papier Collés of 1912–14." Burlington Magazine 155 (September 2013), p. 595, fig. 2.

Georges Braque, 1882–1963. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Galeries nationales. Paris, 2013, pp. 76, 310, no. 82, ill. p. 77.

Carol Vogel. "Billion-Dollar Cubist Gift to the Met." International Herald Tribune (April 11, 2013), p. 12.

Carol Vogel. "$1 Billion Gift Gives Met a New Perspective (Cubist)." New York Times (April 10, 2013), p. A18.

Armand Israël. Georges Braque: Père du Cubisme, initiateur de l'art contemporain. Paris, 2013, pp. 197–98, ill. p. 196, as early September 1912.

"Objects Promised to the Museum during the Year 2012–2013." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, One Hundred Forty-third Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013 (2013), p. 45.

Braque: L’expo. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Galeries nationales. Paris, 2013, p. 108, ill. p. 109.

Carl Einstein. Über Georges Braque und den Kubismus. Zurich, 2013, p. 176, fig. 18, as 1912.

Dominique Dupuis-Labbé. Le petit dctionnaire Braque du cubisme en 50 objets. Paris, 2013, p. 102, ill. (color), p. 103.

Elizabeth Cowling. "Le papier peint dans les papiers collés cubists, 1912–-1914." La Revue des Musées de France: Revue du Louvre no. 1 (2014), pp. 91, 93, ill. no. 1, identifies as "Fruit et verre".

Elizabeth Cowling. "Le papier peint dans les papiers collés cubists, 1912–1914." La Revue des Musées de France: Revue du Louvre (2014), pp. 91–93, ill.

Lewis Kachur inCubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, p. 83.

Anne Umland inCubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 97–100, 104, no. 9, ill. p. 98 (color), fig. 44 (on display in Douglas Cooper's residence, Château de Castille, ca. 1955).

Anna Jozefacka and Luise Mahler inCubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 248–51, figs. 9A (on display in Douglas Cooper's residence, Monte Carlo, ca. 1980), 9B (no. 69 in the 1921 Wilhelm Uhde sequestration sale catalogue, Hôtel Drouot, Paris).

Emily Braun and Leonard A. Lauder inCubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, p. 11.

Alan Hyman, ed. The Picasso Project: Picasso's Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings, and Sculpture, A Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue, 1885–1973., Analytic Cubism, 1909–1912. San Francisco, 2015, p. lviii.

"The Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection: A Conversation with Emily Braun and Pepe Karmel." IFAR Journal 16, no. 3 (2015), pp. 42-43, fig. 17 (color).

Christopher Green inCubism and War: The Chrystal in the Flame. Exh. cat., Museu Picasso. Barcelona, 2016, pp. 37–39, fig. 24 (color).

When war broke out in 1914, Georges Braque enlisted at once and left for the front. His wife Marcelle was promptly arrested as a spy. “What is your husband’s profession?” demanded the police. “He is a painter,” she replied. “No Madame,” came the answer, “he is a cubist!”

The cubist rather than the painter has always overdefined Braque. In prewar France, cubism – invented by Braque and Picasso but championed by the German-Jewish dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler – was reckoned a Teutonic plot to undermine French civilisation. In fact, its shattering of traditional perspective liberated the Ecole de Paris to lead painterly innovation for half a century. How Picasso used, adapted, reworked cubism in that time is modern art’s most familiar story. How Braque did so is its least known.

The Grand Palais’ Georges Braque is the first retrospective of the artist for 40 years and is unlikely to be surpassed. It offers perfect-pitch insight into Braque as the quintessential French painter, both heir to the classical tradition and precursor of postwar abstraction, and an artist whose inventive power was matched among his contemporaries only by Matisse and Picasso. With this show, Braque, third man of modernism, comes into his own.

Before Braque was a cubist, he painted Fauve landscapes in rowdy pink-purple hues and looped forms. Among glowing canvases opening this exhibition is the abbreviated “La Petite Baie de la Ciotat” – opposing yet balanced carmine/olive/gold pointillist marks, seeming to float on water – which Braque loved, sold in 1907 and repurchased in 1959, and several architectonic structures where L’Estaque’s geometric houses and blocky hills already reference Cézanne.

By 1908 Braque had met Picasso and was editing his L’Estaque views to exclude detail and build multifaceted compositions of prisms, triangles, diagonals. The compacted, monochrome stacks of “Maisons à L’Estaque” comprise the first cubist landscape – centrepiece at Braque’s inaugural solo show, where a critic, disparaging the “little cubes”, launched cubism.

In 1912 Braque stole another march on Picasso: pasting strips of faux bois wallpaper, simulating woodgrain, he suggested a table in a composition depicting a fruit bowl and glass. “Compotier et Verre” was the first papier collé. An ironic allusion to Braque’s decorating apprenticeship (his father and grandfather were housepainters), it opened provocative pictorial possibilities: industrial mass production entered high art; an object could be represented by its equivalent rather than an image.

During these years, Braque recalled, he and Picasso were “roped together like mountaineers” as they investigated a pictorial space allowing “a multiple vision of the world, offering all the facets of things simultaneously”. The pair worked so closely that they could not always tell apart their own sober, grey/fawn paintings of musical instruments and bottles fragmented into interpenetrating planes. Among top examples here, the Guggenheim’s “Violon et palette” and “Piano et mandore”, Leonard Lauder’s “Nature morte à la mandore et au métronome”, the Museum of Modern Art’s “L’Homme à la guitare” are all hermetic, airless, mysterious. Later, as in the Pompidou’s “Nature morte au violon”, stabbing white dashes unify the canvas. “I have discovered an indestructible white, velvet on the brush. I’m abusing it,” Braque told Kahnweiler.

The standard account of cubism is that Braque contributed conceptual measure and calm, Picasso the tension of physical sensation. That ignores what a material, textural painter Braque is. Severely injured in 1915, he regained momentum in the 1920s with return-to-order still lifes – “La cheminée”, “Guitare et bouteille de marc sur une table” – meditating on the relation between bowls, goblets, mandolins, vases and the spaces between them. The overlapping, transparent planes, curvilinear rhythms and supple arabesques controlled by what Braque called “the rule that corrects emotion”, recall Chardin’s classical equilibrium. To Duncan Phillips, who bought “La Table ronde” (loaned here), Braque, “no longer restrained from rich sensuous painting”, now had “the best style in Europe and ... cubism finally justified itself by producing works of art at once architectural and lyrical”.

“But how to describe his paintings?” cried Giacometti. “How to speak about the sensation provoked in me by the vertical, slightly out of kilter vase and flowers on a grey ground?” Braque was sphinxlike: “I have made a great discovery. I no longer believe in anything. Objects don’t exist for me except in so far as a rapport exists between them or between them and myself. When one reaches this harmony, one reaches a sort of intellectual non-existence ... Life then becomes a perpetual revelation. That is true poetry.”

As the political climate darkened, Braque retreated into a sort of Proustian interiority, yet he always reflected the times. Late 1930s ornamental silhouettes on gold backgrounds in the claustrophobic “Femme à la palette” and “Le Duo”, descended from Greek vase figures, are allegories of creation – the painter, the pianist – countering a destructive era. “Les Poissons noirs” and other wartime fish still lifes speak of hunger, subdued violence.

For “La Poêle” (1942-43), a monumental stove glistening coldly, with empty coal bucket and skull-shaped palette alongside, Braque mixed ash with paint to give body to an icon of deprivation under the Occupation. “How can a great painter like you work in the cold?” demanded visiting Nazi officers. “We will provide you two lorry-loads of coal.” “No thank you,” replied Braque diplomatically, “if I accepted I should no longer be able to speak well of you.”

This show unravels beautifully how Braque’s late series evolve into one another. The table-top still lifes prepare for the vertiginous postwar Billard and Atelier series revisiting cubism’s deconstruction of space and interplay of forms. A broken vertical axis in early “Billards” makes the billiard table appear to crack and fold; in the 1947-49 rendering, the entire table metamorphoses into a giant pair of wings, rhyming with background bird motifs.

In some of the great “Ateliers” – exhibited together for the first time – a white bird, simplified like a cut-out, presides over interiors that are at once evanescent and dense, grainy. Playing on different degrees of material presence, Braque here dislocates, superimposes, hollows out, dissolves objects so that they seem to exist in waves of time, like memories.

When the birds get canvases to themselves, in Braque’s final series, the background becomes yet more aggressively textured.

In “A tire d’aile”, Braque caked the sky in so many layers of bluish-grey impasto that the picture could not be lifted; paradoxically, the clouds are thickly tangible while the black bird, flying through them like an arrow to pierce an enigmatic massed black form, is thinly painted, light as air. A painting of death? Braque denied symbolic intent but, on a study for this work, he wrote: “Without respite, we will chase after our destiny.” No 20th-century painter did so more seriously or thrillingly.

‘Georges Braque’, Grand Palais, Paris, to January 6, grand palais.fr; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, February 16-May 11 2014, mfah.org

Jackie Wullschlager

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