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Psychology Research Paper On Dreams We Will Depend

There's been a lot of talk about sleep lately. When I wrote Insomniac, I felt like a lone voice decrying the dangers of sleep-deprivation, the toll sleep loss takes on our minds, bodies, moods. As any insomniac will tell you (and I interviewed dozens), there's nothing so crucial as sleep for our mental, physical, and social well being. It seems those of us who have the hardest time sleeping are the ones who most appreciate how sleep keeps us glued together.

So it's terrific sleep is getting this long overdue attention. But I'm wondering, what about dreams? I haven't heard much about dreams in the discussion.

When you wake to an early alarm, cutting off the last hour or two of sleep, the sleep you sacrifice is mainly REM, "rapid eye movement," the most dream-rich stage of sleep.  We dream in all stages of sleep, not just REM, but our most vivid and memorable and emotionally resonant dreams, those wild, phantasmagoric images and stories that play through our heads like films, occur mainly in the stretch of REM just before we wake up in the morning.

What does it mean, to lose our dreams? A normal sleeper, a good sleeper, spends about a quarter of sleep time in REM, so a person who lives 90 years will spend 6 or 7 years in REM. And when researchers deprive people of REM, there is REM rebound, an increase in amount and intensity of REM equivalent to the duration of the deprivation. So it seems dreams are there for something, have some purpose.

When researchers discovered REM in 1953, they were ecstatic to find that the eye movements were associated with dream recall. Most researchers studying the mind those days were Freudians, and Freud saw dreams as "the royal road to the unconscious"-so researchers thought they'd found the route to the innermost recesses of the self.

It wasn't that simple, of course. Subsequent findings about the workings of the brain did not bear out Freud's ideas, and the focus of dream study shifted to the neurological bases of dreams, their physiological rather than psychological origins, the ebb and flow of neurotransmitters. At present, there is "precious little on which dream researchers agree," says Harvard sleep scientist Robert Stickgold, whose work suggests an association of dreaming with learning and the consolidation of memory.

I've been attending annual meetings of the Associated Professional Sleep Society (APSS) since 2002. These are conferences where sleep scientists, physicians, psychotherapists, and pharmaceutical researchers gather to share the latest in research and treatments. In the years I've been attending, I've heard breakthrough discoveries about sleep and the brain that have brought researchers closer to understanding disorders such as narcolepsy, restless leg syndrome, even insomnia. But I've heard few presentations about dreams.

At the 2009 meeting in Seattle, dreams were discussed in relation to post-traumaticstress syndrome, but- except for a talk by P.F. Pagel, University of Colorado Medical School-that was about all. Pagel commented wryly that he seemed to have moved into the study of dreams just as everybody else moved out, since his was the only presentation on dreams at this conference. He described a study he did with the Filmaking and Screenwriter Labs in Sundance that found a much higher recall and use of dreams among actors, writers, and directors than among participants from his sleep center: dream use increases, he concludes, in proportion to a person's interest in the creative process or product.

It figures that filmmakers have this kind of generative conversation with their dreams, since film is, of all human creations, probably the most dream-like. But I came away from Pagel's talk thinking, wait a minute: artistic types are the only ones who have use for their dreams? Doesn't everybody-teachers and software designers and politicians and psychotherapists- need to think creatively? Would you want a sleep-starved surgeon wielding a scalpel (and doctors are the most sleepstarved of professionals): what if something goes wrong? When sleep-deprived subjects are given tests that require flexibility, the ability to change strategy and generate new ideas and approaches, they respond poorly, tending to fall back on rote, rigid thinking.

Robert Stickgold finds that when people are awakened out of REM and given a word to associate to, their associations are more novel, more original than in other stages of sleep; they "ignore the obvious and put together things that make a kind of crazy unexpected kind of sense." Dreams, Stickgold says, are where we bring things together in fresh, often startling ways, drawing on stores of knowledge from the past, the present, the possible, to find new associations. Dreams may help us find new patterns and create combinations that break through well-worn ruts. "This is what creativity is," says Stickgold. Dreams, far from being idle fancies, are enablers of "the most sophisticated human cognitive functions."

There are, of course, highly creative and productive people who have little or no dream recall. But dreaming may still work behind the scenes. I swear, I write better when I awake out of one of those intense, thrashing-it-through dreams. Even a troubling dream, a dream that churns up stuff I'd rather shove under the carpet, even a dream barely remembered, much less understood, seems to provide some kind of fluency, dream energy, fuel for thought. Those are the days that the words and images come, tumble out so fast that my fingers on the keys can barely keep up. I don't know how it works, but it does seem to work.

And creativity isn't just for writers or artists, it's about basic survival, about finding new paths, figuring out what to do when something goes drastically wrong on the highway, in a marriage, in a work situation. We live in a complex world. We need our brains to be firing on all cylinders; we need to think creatively, flexibly, as we negotiate relationships with colleagues, co-workers, family, friends.

Are we a society that's losing its dreams, that's cutting short dreaming with "alarms"? Are we dumbing ourselves down with overwork, sleeping too little and working too much, undercutting the very efforts we make by working so hard? When you get up to an early alarm, you gotta ask, are you really gaining productivity with that time, or dulling the creative edge that might make you far more productive? Sleep has survival value not only for you as an individual but for a society whose vitality depends on individuals' thinking outside the box.

So, yes, let's sleep to get healthy, to get thin, to feel better, to get smarter- and remember that that extra hour of sleep is dreamtime that brings incalculable benefits.

actors use their dreams
Sarah Kershaw, "The role of their dreams," NYT, May 7, 2009

Robert Stickgold on dreams

Rebecca Cathcart, "Winding through ‘big dreams' are the threads of our lives,"

Dreams are among the most vivid and unique conscious experiences. Their narrative power is well documented throughout history, from spiritually uplifting stories such as the dream of Jacob, to revelations about the inner self that range from personal insight to Freud’s psychoanalysis. Despite their cultural and personal importance, dreams remain as enigmatic as ever.

The film Inception gives a dramatic portrayal of how dreams can be experienced in a very wakeful way. The possibilities of sharing a dream or embedding a dream within another dream (here, for the real life purpose of gaining time) are presented as possibilities compatible with the typical experience of dreaming. Generally speaking, however, one is not simply observing dreams from a “wakeful distance” where one can plan or even build an alternate reality. Rather, dreaming typically involves being deeply under the grip of the events experienced, without much planned control or wakeful awareness.

Still, consciously attentive dreaming does happen. Lucid dreaming, the attentive awareness that one is dreaming, can be described as a type of sustained attention to the manner in which one transitions into a dream state from waking consciousness. Evan Thompson highlights how the training of this transition from wakeful awareness into dream awareness has been practiced since at least the Buddhist spiritual exercise called “dream yoga”. An important aspect of this dream awareness is the conscious decision to attend to the dream as a dream. The point of the practice of lucid dreaming is to enter into the “dream-mode” of consciousness without letting oneself lose the type of conscious voluntary attention characteristic of wakeful consciousness. One enters dream consciousness with the attentive recognition that it is a dream. The fact that this practice (a type of attention routine) allows people to lucid dream suggests that there are two varieties of conscious attention in dreams: one lucid and one passively engaged. The consciousness and attention dissociation framework we have discussed in previous posts accommodates these two types of dream awareness. Lucid dreaming is more active and relates to voluntary conscious attention, while regular dreaming is more passive and may relate to automatic forms of attention.

Lucid dreaming opens intriguing possibilities for the study of consciousness. If one can attend lucidly to an experience as a dream (something that is driven almost exclusively by memories and not just by external sensory stimulation), we need to ask how this kind of attention is related to daydreaming and waking awareness. Could one reverse the roles and attend to waking awareness as if it were a dream? Life as a dream is an idea that has deep spiritual and artistic implications, and this is a familiar topic in philosophy and pop culture. Despite these implications, and although these are interesting changes of attention, we still do not have a good explanation for their cognitive purpose or function. What is the point of being able to shift attention in this way while dreaming?

Consider, for instance, that dreams may be defined as a form of psychosis, in the sense that dreams are hallucinatory-like experiences that lack contact with the immediate surroundings (see Hobson & Voss, 2011). The difference between dream and wakeful awareness is found both at the descriptive (phenomenological) level and at the neural level (Hobson & Voss, 2011). Since the difference between dream and waking conscious attention may also have different evolutionary origins (Haladjian & Montemayor, 2015), the question why dream consciousness evolved becomes pressing. Why would a form of “psychotic” conscious attention become a recurrent form of conscious awareness in humans? Is there a reason to experience dreams?

One possible explanation is that some kinds of conscious attention in dreams are particularly helpful for personal insight, understanding, and originality. After all, it would be incorrect to equate dreams with hallucinations because hallucinations involve a wakeful state of consciousness that is representing something that is not there physically, while in dreams one is in an entirely different state in which, for instance, the motor-control system is not active. Moreover, as Evan Thompson (2014, p.188) argues, practices such as attending to a dream as a dream make dreams resemble imaginary awareness and creative forms of consciousness, rather than hallucinations, because one is guiding attention in a fruitful way.

Therefore, it is possible that various forms of conscious awareness with different types of attention may be involved in the phenomenon we globally call “dreaming”. The idea that there are various forms of conscious awareness is plausible (see Kriegel, 2015), and it is important for future research to investigate whether or not these differences depend—and to what extent they depend—on different types of attention. Could it be, for example, that lucid dreaming relies on a voluntary and reflective form of attention that is not likely to be found in any other species? The suggestion that lucid dream experiences enhance our powers of imagination can explain why we value them and why they might be cognitively important, even if they technically could be considered forms of psychosis.

More controversially, some forms of psychosis, which may include dreams, seem to be particularly powerful sources of artistic inspiration and originality. The transformative power of these experiences plays an important role in art and religion. As Plato says in the Phaedrus, a good kind of madness frees the mind in ways that seem indispensable for truly insightful and original thought, as well as for artistic and poetic creation. If this is correct, altered states of consciousness, including dreams, would be fundamental for some of the cultural objects we value the most: artistic creations.

Another point to consider is the difference between dreams and wakeful memories. Recalling dreams seems to depend on a much weaker and fragile form of voluntary attention than the type of attention that guides and succeeds at retrieving wakeful semantic and episodic memories. Yet the memory involved in dreams seems to integrate important aspects of our personal lives. We believe that this kind of integration of memories in dreams may be relevant for the integration of personal narratives (see Montemayor & Haladjian, 2015, chapter 4). If this is correct, dreams may have a specific impact on autobiographical memory that goes beyond their relevance for original and insightful creation.

Independently of the creative powers of altered states of consciousness, the distinctions between lucid dreaming, dreaming, daydreaming, and wakeful consciousness would certainly highlight the dissociation between consciousness and attention. The ability to have lucid dreams in humans, which does not likely occur in other species (although some animals are thought to be able to dream when sleeping), is something that should be studied closely. Ultimately, this kind of research would help us to better understand the nature of consciousness.

- Carlos Montemayor and Harry Haladjian


Haladjian, H. H., & Montemayor, C. (2015). On the evolution of conscious attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22(3), 595-613. 

Hobson, A., & Voss, U. (2011). A mind to go out of: Reflections on primary and secondary consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(4), 993-997.

Kriegel, U. (2015). The Varieties of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.

Montemayor, C., & Haladjian, H. H. (2015). Consciousness, Attention, and Conscious Attention. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Thompson, E. (2014). Waking, Dreaming, Being: Self and Consciousness in Neuroscience, Meditation and Philosophy. Columbia University Press.

Source: Sam McGuire Photography, Los Angeles (used with permission).