Teacher’s Manual FOR STUDENT BOOKS 5–8 New Readers Press
I nt r o d u ction to t h e C h a l l e n g e r S e r ies The Challenger Adult Reading Series is a program nonfiction that enable students to broaden the scope of © New Readers Press. All rights reserved.designed to develop reading, writing, and reasoning skills their knowledge.in adult and adolescent students. The first four books in theChallenger series emphasize learning to read, developing The varied exercises and activities help studentsbasic decoding, vocabulary, comprehension, and writing to develop their reading, writing, speaking, andskills. Beginning with Book 5, the emphasis shifts to listening skills and to increase their basic knowledge.reading to learn, developing higher-level comprehension Comprehension exercises based on the reading selectionsand reasoning skills while expanding the student’s focus on the development of literal, inferential, and appliedknowledge base. comprehension skills. In addition, comprehension exercises in Books 5 through 8 develop literary understanding,Components of the Series interpretation, and critical reading skills. The Challenger series contains: Other exercises are designed to increase vocabulary• 8 student books and develop reading and reasoning skills. They include• 2 teacher’s manuals vocabulary reviews; word associations; classifying,• 8 writing workbooks sequencing, and categorizing exercises; using context• online Challenger Placement Tool clues; forming analogies; using dictionaries and reference• online puzzles correlated to the student book lessons materials; and several types of puzzles.The Student Books There are reviews after every four or five lessons, except in Books 1 and 3. Each book has a final review. Each book in this controlled vocabulary series contains Also included in Books 1 through 5 are indexes of the20 lessons, plus reviews. Each lesson includes: words introduced so far in that book. The word indexes• word study for Books 6 through 8 are available online. These word• a reading selection indexes can be used in developing reinforcement activities• a wide variety of exercises and activities and vocabulary reviews. In Books 1, 3, 5, and 7, each lesson begins with a word The Teacher’s Manualschart that introduces new words according to specificphonics principles. In all books, new words that appear in There is a single Teacher’s Manual for Books 1–4the lesson are listed before each reading selection. and a single Teacher’s Manual for Books 5–8. These comprehensive manuals explain the concepts underlying The reading selections in the odd-numbered books the Challenger series and offer practical suggestions aboutare mostly fiction. Books 1 and 3 contain original stories procedures and techniques for working with students.about a group of adults in a variety of situations. Most Separate chapters deal with preparing to teach, teachingreading selections in Books 5 and 7 are minimally adapted the lessons, writing, doing reinforcement activities,well-known works of fiction. The even-numbered books and using the lesson notes. These chapters should becontain engaging informational readings. The selections read before you begin to use this program. Individualin Books 2 and 4 are on topics similar to those in lesson notes contain suggestions for pre-reading,magazines and encyclopedias. Most selections in Books post-reading, and writing activities. Comments on specific6 and 8 are adapted from highly respected works of6 TEACHER’S MANUAL Introduction to the Challenger Series
© New Readers Press. All rights reserved. exercises should be read before teaching the lessons. Sequenced Skill Building In the teacher’s manuals, there are also introductions Each lesson builds on the skills developed and the to each book, scope and sequence charts, and answer keys for each book. Finally, the Teacher’s Manual for content introduced in previous lessons. Students are Books 1–4 contains a chart of the common phonics continually challenged as the lessons increase in length principles and elements in English words. and difficulty. As reading selections become longer, the content, vocabulary, and sentence structure become more Student Writing sophisticated and demanding. The exercises and writing Students are encouraged to write from the very first activities build on and expand students’ knowledge and abilities. Students experience a sense of progress as they lesson. Early in the series, exercises focus on writing at learn to apply their skills to new situations. the sentence level and are designed to simultaneously improve spelling, sentence structure, and students’ Highly Motivating Material skill in expressing themselves clearly. Most lessons in Students who have used the Challenger series Books 5 through 8 have exercises that require students to write brief paragraphs. Suggestions for providing have commented that this reading program has many additional writing activities are given in the individual characteristics that help to hold their interest and maintain lesson notes. their motivation. The characteristics they most frequently cite include: Significant Educational Features • exceptionally motivating reading selections • mature and diverse material Flex ibility and Adaptabi lit y • information that increases background knowledge • emphasis on using reasoning powers The Challenger series has been used successfully with • challenge of increasingly difficult materials students in many different types of instructional settings: • feelings of success and confidence generated by the • adult volunteer literacy programs • ABE, pre-GED, and GED programs program • secondary remedial reading programs • secondary special education programs Placement • community college reading programs The Challenger Placement Tool, used in conjunction • educational programs in correctional institutions • workforce tutorial programs for employees with information you have about a student’s background knowledge, speaking and writing abilities, and motivation, Challenger can be used in one-to-one tutoring can help you to decide where to place the student in situations, as well as in a variety of group settings. The the Challenger series. Scores on standardized reading lessons can be adapted to fit a variety of formats, allowing inventories can also be used. For Books 5–8, scores in the you to introduce additional activities and topics related to following reading level ranges are appropriate: individual student interests and needs. Book 5: 5.0–6.5 An Integrated Approach Book 6: 6.0–7.5 Challenger integrates reading, writing, speaking, and Book 7: 7.0–8.5 Book 8: 8.0–9.5 listening skills. Reading comprehension is developed through oral discussion of inferential- and applied-level Keep in mind that numerical reading levels by questions. These discussions help students to develop themselves are not adequate descriptors of adult reading speaking and listening skills. Students build writing skills abilities. For students already using the series, scoring through follow-up writing activities. Critical thinking 85 percent or better on the final review in each book and reasoning skills are developed as students discuss the indicates that they are ready to go on to the next book. readings, the exercises, and their writing activities. Introduction to the Challenger Series TEACHER’S MANUAL 7
Chapter 1 Preparing to Teach The following suggestions are based on the author’s share their work in pairs or small groups. Chapter 3 © New Readers Press. All rights reserved.experiences and those of other teachers who have used gives details on writing assignments.these books. You may find that your own situation renders 2. Homework review. Discuss the reading selection tosome of these suggestions either impractical or impossible make sure students have understood it and to giveto implement in your classroom. It is hoped, however, that them a chance to react to the reading. Then go overmost of these suggestions can be modified to meet your the comprehension questions and the other exercises,particular needs. and have students make any necessary corrections. 3. Reinforcement activity. If no writing assignment wasHow Often to Use Challenger given and if time permits, have the students do one or more reinforcement activities. See Chapter 4 for In general, it is recommended that teachers use suggestions about reinforcement activities.Challenger with students two or three times a week for at 4. Homework preview. Go over the Words for Studyleast 45 minutes per session. If you meet five times a week listed at the beginning of the lesson. Introduce thewith pre-GED students who are eager to pass the tests and reading selection, and call attention to any specialhave time outside the classroom to complete homework features that may be new or confusing. Have studentsassignments, you may want to use Challenger every day. quickly preview the individual exercises for anything If you meet five times a week with an adult or adolescent they don’t understand.reading class that does not have a specific task such as GED Following this general procedure on a fairly consistentpreparation to motivate them, the recommended schedule basis helps students because they tend to feel more relaxedis to focus on the lessons three times a week and devote and work better when they have a sense of routine.the other two class sessions to activities that reinforce or Modifications in the procedure should be made only whenenrich material presented in the lessons. Suggestions about they will enhance students’ reading development.these reinforcement activities appear in Chapter 4. Just as you encourage students to see homework assignments as daily workouts, encourage them to see It is important that students recognize the need to class time as a daily workout, also. These lessons shouldwork with Challenger regularly. This is often an issue for not be seen as achievement tests but rather as opportunitiesstudents in volunteer programs or institutions in which to move students smoothly toward their reading goals.class attendance is not mandatory. Whatever the situation, Students do not have to demonstrate mastery of theif a student chooses to attend class on a highly infrequent material in one lesson in order to go on to the next lesson.basis, tell him politely but frankly that there is little point Mastery will come with consistent practice.in his attending at all because he’s not giving himself a It is crucial for teachers to think in terms ofchance to make any significant progress. improvement rather than mastery because students using these books often want to add a fourth component to If only one class meeting a week is possible, try to the lesson format—rationalizing and/or lamenting theirschedule this class for 90 minutes to two hours. Also, have mistakes. This uses up valuable classroom time and,the students complete two lessons and, if appropriate, a if allowed a foothold, will result in students giving upwriting activity for homework. When the students look at and dropping out. Students must learn to perceive theiryou as if you are crazy, show them that by completing a mistakes as a natural and helpful part of the learningfew components of the lessons each day, they will not only process. They can learn this only by your gentle but firmbe able to do the work but also reinforce what they are reminder that consistent practice is the key to mastery.learning. Sports and music are helpful analogies because Remember that both adult and adolescent readingmost students know that both require daily practice. students tend to be overly sensitive to mistakes in their work. In most cases, they firmly believe that if they hadn’tThe Lesson Format made so many mistakes in the first place, they wouldn’t have to be working in these books. For example, a woman After the first class, which of course involves no in her mid-twenties who decided to quit class explained herhomework review, the procedure for each lesson is basically reason this way: “My teacher told me that it was all rightthe same. The overview below gives you an idea of whathappens during each class. More detailed procedures forthis work appear in later chapters of this manual.1. Writing assignment. If students have been given a writing assignment, begin the class by letting them32 TEACHER’S MANUAL Chapter 1
© New Readers Press. All rights reserved. to make mistakes, but every time I had one in my work, inadequate. We prefer habits and routines that are familiar she would kind of close her eyes and shake her head like and give us some sense of security. Adolescent or adult I should have learned all this in the fourth grade.” Teachers reading students have entered into a situation in which must think and act in terms of improvement rather than they cannot avoid the material (unless they give up) or fake mastery and regard mistakes as natural and helpful. their way through it. They are to be admired for having put themselves in this situation. Unless they are extremely Do not expect to know at the outset how much time to motivated or thick-skinned, they must feel a sense of support allot to each segment of the lesson. Understanding exactly from you or they will eventually drop out, because exposing how to pace the lessons takes time. By paying attention to their lack of knowledge just gets too painful after a while. students’ responses and rate of accuracy, you will gradually learn how to schedule the lessons so that students improve In addition, completing the lessons in these books is their reading and writing skills in a relaxed but efficient hard work. No matter how much progress is being made, manner. virtually all students experience a sense of frustration at one time or another. Your encouragement will help Preparing the Lessons them to get through these gloomy periods when they are ready to throw in the towel. In preparing the lessons, develop the habit of following this procedure: Suggestions for a Good Working Rapport 1. Familiarize yourself with the lesson students are to The following are suggestions to help you consider work on that day. how best to develop a good working relationship with 2. Review the appropriate lesson notes in this manual for your students. • Strive for naturalness in your voice and mannerisms. suggestions to help you teach the lesson. Go over the appropriate answers in the Answer Key in the student Some teachers unconsciously treat reading students as book as well. if they were mental invalids or victims of a ruthless 3. Review any notes you took after the preceding class society. A condescending or pitying approach does not in which you jotted down vocabulary words or writing help students become better readers. difficulties that students need to review. Teacher • Greet the students pleasantly, and spend a few minutes note-taking is discussed in Chapter 5 of this manual. in casual conversation before you actually begin work. 4. Decide on any reinforcement activities you may As a rule, do not allow this conversation to exceed five want to use, and complete any preparation needed. minutes. Students will take their cue from you. If you Suggestions for reinforcement activities are given in encourage conversing rather than working, they will Chapter 4. be more than willing to oblige. 5. Skim the lesson to be assigned for homework and • Participate fully in this pre-lesson conversation, and the appropriate lesson notes so you can introduce the listen attentively to the students’ remarks. Often you reading selection and answer any questions students can later refer to these remarks when you are helping may have about the exercises. students to understand a vocabulary word or a point in Last and most important, you need to prepare yourself the reading selection. Not only do they appreciate the mentally and emotionally for the class. If possible, take fact that you actually were listening to them, but also several minutes before the students’ arrival to unwind they begin to make connections with the material they from the previous activities of the day. As a general rule, are studying. how well the lesson goes is determined by how relaxed • Use a phrase such as “Shall we get started?” to indicate and focused you are on the work. As the teacher, your that it is time to begin the lesson. A consistent use of main function is to serve as a smooth “bridge” between such transitional statements helps the students feel the student and the lesson material. Your own patience and more comfortable with both you and the class routine. concentration will determine how helpful this bridge is. • If possible, work at an uncluttered table rather than at desks. Try to have straight-backed, cushioned chairs The Teacher-Student Relationship since physical comfort makes developing a good relationship easier. Making sure that you are relaxed for the lesson • Be sure to use positive reinforcement during the lesson. also contributes to the development of a good working Remind students of the progress they are making. relationship with your students.Adolescent or adult reading When a student is particularly discouraged, do this students rely heavily on your support and encouragement. in a concrete way. For example, show him how many It is helpful to remember that most of us, as we grow Chapter 1 TEACHER’S MANUAL 33 older, learn to fake or avoid situations in which we feel
pages of work he has completed, or have him look at A map or atlas is helpful because it can make the his composition book to see all the writing he has done. facts presented in the lessons more meaningful to• Develop the habit of wishing students a good day or a students. Access to the Internet is also very valuable. For good evening as they leave the class. This is especially example, in Lesson 10, Exercise 6 of Book 6, students important if both you and the students have had a are introduced to the Jew’s harp. Although they are given rough session. The students, particularly adolescents, a description of the item, this presents a good opportunity need to know that you don’t carry personal grudges. for students to research the item online to see what it looks and sounds like.General Supplies Encourage students to research additional information For each class, students need to bring their Challenger as often as their interest, abilities, and time permit, andbooks, their writing notebooks, and pens or pencils. The give them all the assistance you can when they need help.use of a writing notebook—a slim loose-leaf binder with These mini-research experiences help students feel morewide-lined paper—is discussed in Chapter 3. competent when searching for information. You need your own copy of Challenger, any notes A Summary of Dosand reinforcement activities pertaining to the lesson, afew sheets of blank paper for notes, and a pen, A pen is 1. Do try to schedule as many sessions each week asrecommended because students can spot your marginal possible.notes and corrections more easily. Avoid red ink as it maybe associated with bad memories by some students. 2. Do develop a consistent lesson format. 3. Do take time to decide the pace that works best for Have a dictionary and, if possible, access to theInternet. Keep a map or an atlas within easy reach. The your students.dictionary is a valuable resource because it provides 4. Do prepare for each class.additional information about many of the words, people, 5. Do take a few moments to relax before each class.and events mentioned in the reading selections and 6. Do develop a good working relationship with yourexercises. Be prepared to teach students how to use theseresources. Do not assume that students working at a Book students because it is essential to their reading progress.5 or above reading level are familiar with them. 7. Do make sure that the environment in which you teach is as conducive to good learning as possible. © New Readers Press. All rights reserved.34 TEACHER’S MANUAL Chapter 1
Chapter 2 Teaching the Lessons© New Readers Press. All rights reserved. In this chapter, suggestions are given for teaching know this. Simply remind them, when appropriate, that the main components of each lesson. These components a good reading vocabulary is necessary for good reading include word study, the reading selection, the exercises, and that they will encounter a word in various types of correcting the homework, and the homework preview. exercises so that they can truly master its meaning. Word Study The best way to encourage your students as they complete the many vocabulary development exercises is The Challenger series places a great deal of emphasis to demonstrate an interest in language yourself. This does on learning and/or reviewing word meanings since a major not mean that you have to use a lot of fancy words when obstacle to reading development is a poor vocabulary. talking to your students. What it does mean is that you It has been estimated that only about 2,000 words account do not approach vocabulary study as if it were something for 99 percent of everything we say. To be a proficient merely to be endured. reader, however, one must be familiar with far more than 2,000 words. Thus, except for the reading comprehension Suggestions for Enriching Word Study exercises, most of the other exercises focus on vocabulary development. Here are a few suggestions for making vocabulary study more interesting for students: Word Char ts and Definitions 1. Have students pronounce the Words for Study in As mentioned previously, the word charts in student the next lesson during the homework preview. Most books 5 and 7 contain new words that are organized around words will not give them any trouble. By pronouncing common phonics principles. Most of these principles have the unfamiliar ones, students will gain confidence in been introduced in earlier books and are now simply being their ability to learn the words, and confidence often reviewed. How much emphasis you give to the phonics leads to interest. principles depends on the needs of your students. Some 2. Encourage students to develop the habit of paying students enjoy reading the chart words aloud, while others attention to word endings. Words listed in the Words prefer to start each class with the definitions exercise. Words for Study appear in the same form in which they from the chart are repeated frequently in exercises, so it is appear in the reading. For example, notice that in not essential that students read the chart words aloud. For Lesson 1, following is listed. Emphasis on accurate those who do, however, emphasize pronunciation only. pronunciations of endings will help students with both Meanings are stressed in the definitions exercise and in their reading and writing. many other exercises. 3. When time permits, spend a few minutes in casual conversation about some of the words. Using the Words Words for Study for Study in Lesson 2 of Book 5 as an example, you may wish to talk about the different ways the word Keep in mind that the Challenger series is a controlled grant can be used, or have students identify the root in vocabulary series. When students wish to know how the reaction, or help them to trace the origin of synonym in words listed in the Words for Study at the beginning of each a good dictionary. Occasional discussion of words helps lesson have been selected, inform them that these words are students to see them as more than just a string of letters. appearing for the first time in the series. Most of the other 4. Take time during discussions of the readings to words in each lesson have appeared earlier in the series. highlight vocabulary and/or language features. In Lesson 6, Exercise 3 of Book 8, students use context Some students not only find the concept of a to figure out the meaning of words. controlled vocabulary interesting but interpret this concept 5. Finally, strive to speak with expression. You needn’t in interesting ways. For example, one student who was be a Broadway star, but a little ham goes a long way. experiencing difficulty with a synonym exercise in Book 7 remarked: “Well, you can’t expect me to know words that Reading Selections were studied in Book 6!” The amount of time you allot to oral reading and Behind this statement is a conviction shared by many discussion of the reading selections ultimately depends on reading students that once you’ve studied a word, you both the needs of your students and how much class time should never have to study it again. Unfortunately, this is you have with them. not true. Words are learned through repetition, practice, and using the dictionary. Do not assume that your students Chapter 2 TEACHER’S MANUAL 35
Pre-reading and Post-reading Activities 1. Plan questions that you want to ask in class. Be © New Readers Press. All rights reserved. prepared, however, to put your planned questions There are many types of pre-reading and post- aside when a spontaneous question arises in class.reading activities to aid students in developing strategiesfor increasing their literal, interpretive, and critical 2. Make sure students understand the basic ground rulecomprehension skills. of all good discussions: one person speaks at a time. Pre-reading activities should accomplish one or more 3. Encourage participation, but don’t force it. Likewise,of the following objectives: discourage students from monopolizing the discussion.1. to stimulate students’ interest by drawing on prior 4. Keep the discussion focused. experience and understanding of the subject. 5. Avoid asking “yes” and “no” questions. Discussions, like2. to provide essential background information.3. to give students a purpose for reading. travel, should be broadening. “Yes” and “no” questions shut off discussion by being answerable in a single word. You can link the subject of the reading to students’ They also imply that the student should have reached aown experiences by asking “Have you ever done/been/ conclusion before the discussion has even started.thought/felt...?” questions. Some of the readings are better 6. If students seem confused by your questions, rephraseunderstood if the historical setting is first discussed or them rather than repeating them word for word. Thisdescribed. It is also helpful to set a task for students as they practice is not only courteous, but it also remindsread. For example, for the story in Lesson 1 of Book 5, students that there is usually more than one way toyou might say, “As you read, think about what kind of phrase an idea.person Grandpa was.” These suggestions represent the easier part of moderating a discussion. The harder part is staying out Read the first few paragraphs of each reading selection of the way. Your task as the moderator is to get studentsaloud to the students. Have them follow along in the book to react to each other’s opinions and comments, not toas you read. Then ask one or two questions to make sure dominate the discussion yourself.students have understood what you read. By reading aloud, It is essential to view discussions in the same wayyou can create interest in the reading and give students a that you view the students’ other work—in terms offeel for the author’s style and tone. At the same time, you improvement, or growth, instead of mastery. It takes timeare modeling good reading for your students. to develop a good discussion group in which participants can learn to really listen to each other and gain confidence After students have finished reading the selection to express themselves as genuinely as possible. Do notfor homework, have a general discussion to refresh their expect it to be otherwise.memories and to make sure they have understood the Through these discussions, students begin to sensereading. Then discuss their responses to any pre-reading a relationship between the lesson material and their owntask you set for them. Also discuss their responses to the lives. The relationships they have with you and the othercomprehension exercises. students can become more relaxed and real. This, in turn, means that everyone learns better and faster. You should make a list of pre- and post-readingquestions and/or activities for each reading selection based The Exerciseson your students’ backgrounds, capabilities, and needs.The individual lesson notes give some suggestions. In the exercises, students develop their reasoning abilities because they are required to think and infer, to use Encourage students to talk about how they feel about context clues, to practice the process of elimination, and tothe readings. Remember that literature evokes emotional as apply what they already know to new situations.well as intellectual responses and is meant to be enjoyable. Three points that you should emphasize to students areOral Reading accuracy, legibility, and completeness. They are to spell their responses correctly and legibly, and they are not to Having students read aloud at least part of the reading leave any item blank. Tell them to answer all questionsselection periodically gives you an opportunity to note their to the best of their ability. Not only does learning thrive onstrengths and weaknesses and also to help them develop corrected mistakes, but also much is to be said for the artgood oral reading habits. Some students are under the of intelligent guessing.impression that good oral reading means that one reads asfast as one can. Remind these students that in oral reading Remind students to check over their homework afterone must always be conscious of the needs of the listeners. they have finished all the exercises to make sure they have answered all questions completely and accurately.Discussing th e Reading To create an atmosphere in which the reading selectionsand student thoughts about them can be discussed with asense of harmony and unity, consider these suggestions.36 TEACHER’S MANUAL Chapter 2
© New Readers Press. All rights reserved. Allow enough time at the end of the class period for Above all, don’t forget to express your appreciation previewing the exercises that are to be completed for for students’ efforts. Your supportive remarks should be homework. It is important that students understand exactly brief and spoken in a natural voice. Excessive praise is what is expected of them, so don’t rush this segment of the ultimately as counterproductive as no praise at all. Words lesson. of encouragement should stress the notion of progress because students are progressing as they complete each You should spend a few minutes during the first class lesson. meeting with your students to review the importance of homework. Remember, some of your students haven’t The Homework Preview been in a school situation for quite a while, and they may need to be reminded of the importance of completing the During the homework preview, the students note what assignments as well as they can. to do in the next lesson, which they are to complete for homework. Begin by going over the words listed in the Sometimes students try to complete the homework Words for Study. Then introduce the reading selection right after a full day’s (or full night’s) work, or just before to give students an idea of what they will be reading going to bed, or while trying to fulfill other responsibilities. about. It may be necessary to help students get into the Suggest that they schedule definite 30-minute study times habit of noting the title of the reading selection. They in quiet surroundings when they are not exhausted. should understand that the title gives them a general idea of what the selection is about and helps to focus their Make sure to present your ideas on how to develop attention. Also, tell students to look at any illustrations that better study habits in the form of suggestions. You are accompany a reading. Explain that illustrations may offer not stating policy; you are simply encouraging students clues to what a reading is about. to think about how they can better achieve their reading goals within the circumstances of their lives. Remind students to refer to the reading selection when they cannot recall an answer to a comprehension question. C orrecting th e Homework In many instances, they may need to make intelligent guesses based on information that is implied rather than Be sure you allow enough time to go over the homework stated directly. with the students. You will probably need to observe your students and try out a few different schedules before you At this point in their reading development, all students hit on the pace that works best for them. But once you are able to skim through the exercises and ask questions establish the appropriate pace, consistency promotes good about words and/or directions with no assistance from you. concentration and effective learning. The individual lesson notes indicate those instances in which you may want to emphasize certain words or directions. Of all the lesson segments—the words for study, the reading selection, and the exercises—the exercises A Summary of Dos should be covered most thoroughly. All the homework should be corrected. Remember that many patterns 1. Do take time when necessary to explain to students are being established. If students develop the habit of how vocabulary study, the reading selections, and doing something incorrectly, they will have a hard time exercises contribute to their reading development. unlearning the procedure. Be sure to explain this to the students. Eventually, they adapt to this procedure because 2. Do make vocabulary study as interesting as possible. they see that the more they correct in the early stages, the 3. Do plan pre-reading and post-reading activities to less they have to correct later. develop students’ literal, interpretive, and critical Too often, going over the homework can be nothing comprehension skills. more than a dry, mechanical routine in which students 4. Do encourage students to have an attitude of growth simply read their answers. Not only does this deprive rather than fixed opinions in their discussions. them of practice with the words and concepts they’ve 5. Do remind students, when necessary, of the significant been studying, but also it is unfair. Consciously or role that homework plays in reading development. unconsciously, the students’ efforts are being slighted if 6. Do emphasize the need for thoroughness, correct the homework critique is being done in a dreary “what’s- spelling, and accuracy in completing each exercise. the-answer-to-number-2?” style. 7. Do strive for completeness and enthusiasm in the homework reviews. Take your time and enjoy this part of the lesson. If 8. Do support the students’ progress by taking the time to opportunities arise for brief tangents in which items are point out growth they have demonstrated in their work. related to life experiences or other bits of information, take 9. Do allow enough time at the end of each lesson to advantage of them. go over the Words for Study, introduce the next reading selection, and preview the homework exercises. Chapter 2 TEACHER’S MANUAL 37
Chapter 3 Writing The Challenger series emphasizes helping students to on the teacher’s assessment of the students’ time, personal © New Readers Press. All rights reserved.develop their reading skills. Opportunities for sustained needs, and capabilities. The key word is flexibility.writing in the student books are necessarily limited. Thischapter gives suggestions for integrating more writing How to Handle Writing Assignmentspractice into the lessons on a regular basis. You mayalso include the correlated Challenger Writing student When students have been given a writing assignment,workbooks as part of your Challenger curriculum. have them share their work at the beginning of the next classMore information on the writing workbooks is given on session. Working in pairs or small groups, students can readpages 39–40 of this teacher’s guide. their assignments aloud to one another and react to each other’s writing on the basis of content and organization.Why Writing Is Included Students can then exchange papers and act as editors or proofreaders, checking for mechanical problems such as The teacher can assume that a student who has missing words, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.completed some of the books that precede Book 5 can Give students the opportunity to revise their assignmentswrite complete sentences and coherent paragraphs. These before collecting them at the following class session.students will not be surprised at the exercises that involvewriting in the later Challenger books. When responding to these writing assignments, try to make positive comments as well as noting areas for Students who are new to this series may wonder improvement. Your reactions should be based more on thewhy writing activities have been included in a reading content, style, and organization of the writing than on theseries. When this is the case, take time to point out the mechanical aspects.following:• Writing is part of literacy. To be literate, a person must It is recommended that students keep all writing assignments in a slim loose-leaf binder with wide- be able to write as well as read. lined notebook paper. Composition books enable both• Writing helps students to formulate and express their the students and the teacher to quickly review student progress. Have them date their work. As the weeks and thoughts more precisely. This type of thinking helps months progress, most students enjoy looking back now them to complete the other exercises more rapidly. and then at all the writing they have done and how much• The writing that students do in these lessons will help they have accomplished. them with other types of writing they may want to do, such as letters, reports, and short paragraphs on job Like reading and vocabulary work, writing must be applications or resumés. seen in terms of improvement rather than mastery. Most• Only through actually writing can students see that students read far better than they write. It is not uncommon they are able to write. for a student working in Book 6, for example, to write at a Book 4 level: very simple sentences, few modifiers, andOpportunities for Writing underdeveloped thoughts. The most common reason for this is lack of practice. The writing workbooks can help In the student books, primary emphasis is placed students practice good writing habits. Allow studentson content rather than on the mechanics of writing. The to develop from their own starting points, making themreading comprehension questions require students to draw aware of their strengths as well as helping them to work onconclusions from inferences, to cite reasons to support their weaknesses. And don’t forget to be patient.their opinions, to give explanations for their answers, andto cite examples and details to support their responses. Here are a few suggestions to consider in helpingThere are also opportunities for imaginative writing, such students with their writing:as predicting the endings to stories. • As often as possible, have students read their written The individual lesson notes include many suggestions responses or compositions aloud. Students usuallyfor writing assignments, which can supplement the lessons enjoy doing this, and it gives them a chance to hearas reinforcement activities. As stated in the introduction whether or not their writing makes sense. Insist onto each level, it is recommended that weekly writing honest but courteously presented reactions from theassignments be given. However, the decision on how often other students.to give writing assignments as homework should depend38 TEACHER’S MANUAL Chapter 3
© New Readers Press. All rights reserved. • Occasionally, allot some class time to studying how Confusing Sentences the professional writers write. Use a reading selection from Challenger or an interesting magazine article. When a student writes a sentence that is confusing, tell Help students analyze the piece of writing on the basis him you don’t understand what he’s trying to express, and of content organization and style. Make sure students ask him to explain what he meant. Once you understand understand that the writing they are analyzing is more his intent, start a more coherent version of his sentence, than a second, third, or fourth draft. Few students and have him finish it. After the student has read the recognize the contribution editing makes in the writing revision, ask him if it matches what he meant. If not, work process, and understanding this makes them feel less on the sentence until the revision accurately expresses the discouraged about their writing difficulties. student’s original idea. • With their permission, use writing from previous or Problems with Content and O r ganization present students as models to explain a particularly difficult writing assignment. Seeing the work of their Students often have difficulty finding enough to say in peers often helps students realize that the teacher is their writing assignments and organizing their thoughts in not asking them to do the impossible. a logical or interesting manner. Suggest that they begin by making notes of everything they can think of pertaining • With their permission, compile a worksheet using to the topic. The next step is to select from their notes the sentences from student work that illustrate common specific points and details that they want to include in their mistakes. For example, a worksheet comprised of compositions. Then they should organize those points and student-created run-on sentences is an excellent details in the order in which they want to include them. reinforcement activity. Students can work together in They should do all of this before writing the first draft. class to correct the errors and better understand how to After the first draft is written, they should read it to see if avoid this particular writing problem. they want to add anything more or to rearrange any of the points. • Provide the opportunity for students to publicly display their final drafts so other students can read them. A Summary of Dos and Don’ts 1. Do tailor writing assignments to meet the students’ Dealing with Typical Writing Problems needs and capabilities. Run-on Sentences 2. Do make sure that students understand the purpose This situation demands consummate tact on your part and value of writing practice. because, invariably, the student thinks she has written a 3. Do have students keep an orderly composition book terrific sentence and is dismayed to learn that she has to divide it into three or four shorter sentences. Help her to for all their writing. see that by using commas and periods wherever necessary, 4. Do make sure that written work is evaluated, and she helps readers to follow her thoughts more easily. To illustrate how punctuation helps the reader, have her read when appropriate, have students write at least a the sentence aloud, telling her to pause only at commas second draft. and to take a breath only at a period. If you prefer, you 5. Do provide opportunities for students to share their can demonstrate by reading her sentence to her. When she writing with each other. recognizes the value of punctuation marks, have her revise 6. Don’t expect the students’ writing levels to be as high the run-on sentence as necessary. Be sure to commend as their reading levels. her for her effort in helping to make her writing easier for 7. Don’t allow writing assignments to become more readers to comprehend. important than the lessons and other necessary reinforcement activities. Omitted Wor d s Correlated Writing Workbooks When reading their sentences aloud, students are often The eight Challenger Writing workbooks have been surprised to see that they have omitted words. Remind them that many writers have this problem because the mind can developed to provide additional writing practice for think faster than the hand can write. Suggest that after they students at each level of the Challenger reading series. have written something, they should read it to themselves, Each of the eight writing books contains two pages of pointing to each word as they encounter it. This strategy exercises for each lesson in the corresponding Challenger will help them learn to monitor their own writing. student book. Comprehension of the reading selections is aided by doing exercises in the writing books. Students are asked to write about personal opinions and experiences Chapter 3 TEACHER’S MANUAL 39
related to the readings. Thus, reading comprehension and As well as helping to develop writing skills, thevocabulary building are reinforced while writing and exercises in the correlated Challenger writing books alsothinking skills are being developed. develop and reinforce critical thinking skills. Questions about time order help develop sequencing skills. Exercises Challenger Writing is designed to systematically that ask for a reason why an incident in a story maydevelop the skills necessary for writing sentences, have happened reinforce the concept of cause and effect.paragraphs, and more. Writing skills are developed Learners develop basic skills in logic and reasoning assequentially throughout the eight writing books, as exercise they write coherent sentences and responses to questions.formats become familiar while increasing in difficulty andsophistication. And because Challenger is a controlled-vocabulary reading series, the vocabulary in the student writing Related strands of exercises also become more difficult books is also controlled. Words used at each level of theas the series levels progress. These strands include: writing books are those that have been introduced in the• Filling in missing words corresponding level of student book.• Putting sentences in order• Completing sentences and paragraphs The lesson notes for Books 5–8 include notes about• Writing guided and open-ended paragraphs writing activities that are in the correlated writing books. © New Readers Press. All rights reserved.40 TEACHER’S MANUAL Chapter 3
Chapter 4 Reinforcement Activities© New Readers Press. All rights reserved. As the term suggests, these activities are designed Wheel of Fortune. They also enjoy their version of College to reinforce the students’ understanding and retention Bowl in which two teams compete against each other. of the lesson material. All students and most teachers In this game, the teacher can prepare the questions and act occasionally need a break in the routine. Reinforcement as the moderator. activities may throw your schedule off a bit, but it’s worth it. Just make sure that you leave enough time at the end of Puzzles the class period to preview the homework. Many puzzles and other activities can be found Choosing Activities in puzzle magazines sold in most drugstores and supermarkets. You can create your own puzzles using At this point in students’ development, two types of these formats and vocabulary from past and current word activities are particularly helpful: indexes. The word list for Book 5 is at the back of the • activities that reinforce vocabulary skills. Book 5 student book. The word indexes for Books 6, • occasional, short exercises that focus on mechanical 7, and 8 can be found online. You can also go online to access software available for creating crossword puzzles or usage errors most of your students repeatedly make using vocabulary words. in their compositions. The types of activities you use and the frequency with Spelling Bees or Drills which you use them depend on the needs of your students and how often you have an opportunity to meet with them. This activity is most helpful when a specific principle The suggestions in this section are based on activities is emphasized, for example, selecting words that all contain that students have found both helpful and enjoyable. This a specific suffix or consonant blend, or that belong to the list is by no means complete. Take some time to develop same word family. Again, the word indexes at the back of your own “bag of tricks.” Through talking with other this manual can be helpful in developing these activities. teachers, skimming puzzle magazines, and using your own Drills should be spontaneous, brief—ten words is usually imagination, you will soon have reinforcement activities sufficient—and informally presented. In other words, they for a variety of skills. Students, too, often recall helpful should not resemble a quiz in which students demonstrate activities from their earlier schooling. In fact, some of the mastery. Rather, they are an opportunity to help students suggestions that follow come from students. to better understand certain language principles that are giving them difficulty. Word and Information Games Worksheets Students working at this level often enjoy games that are modeled after television shows such as Jeopardy. One type of worksheet can focus on some principle These activities take some time to prepare, but they are that is giving students trouble, such as recognizing an excellent way to reinforce vocabulary and information analogies, using context clues, or making inferences. A presented in the lessons. Certainly you can prepare the popular type of worksheet for context clue or vocabulary questions, but having the students do it gives them an reinforcement is to collect sentences from a newspaper excellent opportunity to review the material. or magazine in which troublesome words you have been working with appear. Set them up in a fill-in-the-blank Students can create their own Jeopardy games by format for the students to complete as a group. As one preparing sets of questions based on the reading selections. student once remarked, “You mean people actually do They can also create sets of vocabulary questions. For use these words?” You might also tell students to be on example, all the answers in a category might begin with the lookout for these words and have them bring to class the prefix pre- or the letter s. Other appropriate categories examples that they find in their own reading. include State Capitals, Bodies of Water, U.S. Presidents, Roman Gods and Goddesses, Famous Inventors, Another type of worksheet can give students practice Abbreviations, and so on. with some aspect of writing, such as capitalization or punctuation. For example, many students neglect to use Other game show formats can also be used. For commas after introductory clauses. You might prepare ten example, students enjoy playing their own version of sentences that begin with introductory clauses and have the students insert commas appropriately. Students find Chapter 4 TEACHER’S MANUAL 41
this type of introduction to grammar both tolerable and need to help them clarify their learning goals. Gently butbeneficial because it helps them to recall a rule they need firmly remind them that, in the long run, their reading andfor their own writing. writing will progress more rapidly if they concentrate more on the lesson work and recognize that the primary reasonEnrichment Projects for reinforcement activities is to do just that—reinforce. Students can spend some time in the library or A Note to the Teachersearching online to find additional information aboutpeople or topics presented in the lessons and informally Because it takes time to prepare many of thesereport their findings to the class. These reports can be given reinforcement activities, be sure to file them away for useduring the time set aside for reinforcement activities. with future students. Any additional information that you can present Also, do not pressure yourself to come up withalso heightens the students’ interest in the material. For something new every time you plan a reinforcementexample, for Lesson 2 of Student Book 5, you might have activity. It takes a few years to develop a solid file ofcopies of easy-to-read collections of myths available so activities.that students can read other myths related to Bacchus or tosome of the other gods. You might bring to class photos of A Summary of Dos and Don’tsstatues of the gods or of some of the many paintings thatdepict the ancient myths. Students could collect references 1. Do make sure the scheduled lesson time is notto the gods that they find in newspapers and magazines. sacrificed for reinforcement activities.The individual lesson notes contain some suggestions forenrichment ideas. 2. Do involve the students in planning and creating reinforcement activities whenever possible.Activities Based on Student Needs 3. Do plan and implement activities that address both the Occasionally students may have specific personal students’ learning needs and their personal needs.needs, such as filling out an application form or creating aresumé, that can be fit comfortably into the lesson format 4. Do remember to save materials you develop foras reinforcement activities if they tell you about them far future use.enough in advance. However, reinforcement activitiesare to reinforce, not replace, the lessons. If students 5. Don’t foster a “here’s-some-more-hard-work” attitudeare spending most of their valuable class time hearing toward reinforcement activities. The students haveadditional information about the reading selections or just finished discussing a reading selection, reviewinggetting your assistance with personal needs, they may their homework, and learning new material. If thelearn some interesting facts or get forms filled out, but reinforcement activities are to benefit them, they needthey are not progressing in their reading development. a little more informality from you for this segment of the lesson. If you suspect that students are using reinforcementactivities to avoid working on the lessons, you probably 6. Don’t foster a “this-is-just-for-fun” attitude either. Some students might not find the activities enjoyable, and you want students who do find them enjoyable to recognize that pleasure and learning can go hand in hand. © New Readers Press. All rights reserved.42 TEACHER’S MANUAL Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Using the Lesson Notes Because you are already familiar with the principles The Reading Selection and procedures that pertain to the lessons in general from reading the previous chapters in this manual, you have the The lesson notes contain suggestions for introducing necessary foundation for sound instructional practices. the reading selections and for discussing them. The The lesson notes address some specific points for the reading segment of the lesson demands more flexibility on individual lessons. As part of class preparation, you should the teacher’s part than any other. Students vary greatly in review the notes for the lesson assigned for homework. You ability and motivation. Remember that the key to helping should also read the notes for the lesson that you will be students make the greatest gains in the least amount of previewing to decide on how best to introduce the reading time is observation. Carefully monitoring your students’ and to note any suggestions and reminders that might be progress will help you to develop sound procedures for helpful to the students when they are doing their homework. improving reading and comprehension skills. Keep in mind that the lesson notes are only suggestions Developing Your Own Notes based on the experience of other reading teachers. If you try one of the suggestions a few times and find it doesn’t Develop the habit of keeping your own notes. Take work, disregard it. time at the end of each class session to write down any remarks or reminders about particular difficulties students Items of Primary and Secondary Emphasis may have had with the lesson. Also make note of specific words or skills for which you may want to develop In most cases, the items listed under the “Primary reinforcement activities. emphasis” heading deal with comprehension of literature and vocabulary development. Using context clues and Be sure to also keep notes on any procedures and using the dictionary receive primary emphasis, also. The techniques that seem to work well. Often you will hit upon first time a particular task is introduced as an exercise, it an excellent way to present a certain skill or concept. Take also is listed under “Primary emphasis.” some time to jot down your idea, especially if you know that you won’t have the opportunity to use it again until a Items listed under “Secondary emphasis” receive less much later time. So much patience and concentration are emphasis in the lesson. Many are skills that have been called for in teaching reading that it’s easy to forget those introduced previously and are now being reinforced. great ideas.© New Readers Press. All rights reserved. Chapter 5 TEACHER’S MANUAL 43
Book 5 I nt r o d u ction Book 5 Introduction The format of Book 5 corresponds to the one used Students who start this series in Book 5 may need © New Readers Press. All rights reserved.in earlier odd-numbered books in the Challenger series. extensive oral reading practice because many studentsEach lesson begins with a word chart that introduces who begin work at this level are careless decoders. Theirwords into this controlled-vocabulary series according to homework often reflects carelessness also. By callingspecific phonics principles. The sound for ph, introduced students’ attention to oral reading errors and conductingin Lesson 19, is the only phonics principle that students homework critiques, you can correct this pattern. Allare studying for the first time in this series. students who use this book should be given as many opportunities for oral reading practice as time permits. Definitions of difficult words from the word chart This practice helps to develop confidence, enjoyment, andappear in a matching exercise that immediately follows interest in reading.each word chart. All students should own or have accessto a dictionary in order to complete these exercises. Book 5 builds upon procedures and practicesDictionary work is more heavily emphasized in Book 5 emphasized in the earlier books in this series. Thus, youthan in earlier books in this series. may find it worthwhile to look through the lesson notes for some of these books. The reading selections in Book 5 are adaptations ofwell-known and well-written literary pieces. With a few Scheduling Considerationsexceptions, all the adaptations are from short stories. Youshould point out to students that they are reading quality Book 5 works well in a classroom setting. Theliterature. Experience indicates that students’ self-esteem most progress is achieved when students work withand motivation are bolstered when they realize that they Challenger a minimum of 45 minutes two or three timesare studying widely-acclaimed authors. a week. Students can work independently, in a group, or with partners. When working with other students, they The exercises and reviews in Book 5 help the students receive the support and stimulation from one another thatto develop further their comprehension skills and recall and make learning more enjoyable. Also, the more advancedreasoning abilities. Literary understanding is emphasized students can assume much of the responsibility for givingin the reading comprehension exercises. In addition, the explanations and leading reinforcement activities, whichconcepts synonym, antonym, and homonym are introduced in turn reinforces their own reading skills. Experiencein Book 5. indicates that less advanced students usually benefit from peer instruction provided that you are available to supply A review appears after every four lessons. These any necessary clarifications.reviews provide students with additional opportunitiesto review words and concepts. They also help students to The Lesson Componentsdevelop the habit of referring to previous lessons forthe correct answers to some of the questions. At the end Later chapters of this manual outline the principlesof the reviews are word indexes containing the words and procedures that form the foundation of this readingintroduced so far in Book 5. These indexes can be used series. The major components of the lessons in Book 5 arewhen developing reinforcement activities such as spelling briefly described below.and vocabulary reviews. Word Chart Book 5 is the appropriate starting point for studentswho score in the 5.0–6.5 range on standardized reading Like the earlier odd-numbered books in this series,achievement tests. The final review in Book 4 can also be Book 5 uses common phonics principles to organize theused as a placement tool. An accuracy rate of 85 percent introduction of new words. Words presented in this manneror better for this review indicates that students are ready help students to understand better the many patterns thatfor Book 5.44 TEACHER’S MANUAL Book 5
NRP Lesson 3 AIRWAY 2015
2. flow inflating bag.
3. T piece resuscitator
2. can not deliver free flow oxygen reliably.
3. can not deliver C pap, and can only deliver Peep when a peep valve is added.
2. flow inflating bag can deliver free flow oxygen up to 100%, AND can deliver CPAP.
3. T - piece has reliable control of Peak Inspiratory Pressure, and Peep.
2. Heart rate below 100 even if breathing.
3. persistant cyanosis and low sat despite free flow oxygen.
Suction mouth then nose. Open mouth.
Pressure increase. Airway alternative.
2. flow inflating bag.
3. T piece resuscitator