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Critical Thinking Routledge Textbooks

1.4  Render the following arguments into standard form.

  • Daisy is a cow. All cows are mammals, so Daisy is a mammal.

    P1) All cows are mammals.

    P2) Daisy is a cow.

    –––––

    C1) Daisy is a mammal.

     

  • If it’s Wednesday, there must be buttered scones for tea. It is Wednesday. There are buttered scones for tea.

    P1) If it’s Wednesday, there must be buttered scones for tea.

    P2) It is Wednesday.

    –––––

    C1) There are buttered scones for tea.

     

  • You shouldn’t drink too much at the party tonight. Whenever you drink too much you embarrass yourself.

    P1) Whenever you drink too much you embarrass yourself.

    P2) You shouldn’t embarrass yourself.

    –––––

    C1) You shouldn’t drink too much at the party tonight.

     

  • LeBron James will never be the greatest NBA player of all time because Michael Jordan is the greatest NBA player of all time.

    P1) If Michael Jordan is the greatest NBA player of all time, then LeBron James can never be the greatest player of all time.

    P2) Michael Jordan is the greatest NBA player of all time.

    –––––

    C1) LeBron James can never be the greatest player of all time.

     

  • All dogs are somewhat dangerous. We should disallow people from owning somewhat dangerous animals, so we should ban the ownership of dogs.

    P1) All dogs are somewhat dangerous.

    P2) We should ban people from owning somewhat dangerous animals.

    –––––

    C1) We should ban people from owning dogs.

     

  • One and only one person murdered John F. Kennedy, and it was either Lee Harvey Oswald or someone else, so since it wasn’t someone else, Oswald must have been the killer.

     P1) Either Lee Harvey Oswald murdered John F. Kennedy or someone else did.

    P2) Someone else did not murder John F. Kennedy

    –––––

    C1) Lee Harvey Oswald murdered John F. Kennedy

     

  • The rules of Quidditch state that the game is over if the snitch is caught. I see that Harry Potter just caught the snitch, so the game must be over.

    P1) If the snitch is caught, the Quidditch game is over.

    P2) Harry Potter just caught the snitch.

    –––––

    C1) The Quidditch game is over.

     

  • People mistakenly say that all famous pirates were men, but Ann Bonny and Mary Read were famous pirates who were female, so not all famous pirates were men.

    P1) Anne Bonny and Mary Read were famous pirates.

    P2) Anne Bonny and Mary Read were not men.

    –––––

    C1) Not all famous pirates were men.

     

  • Quidditch cannot be a real sport if there is no international association for it. But, however insane it sounds, the International Quidditch Association does exist, so Quidditch must be a real sport.

    P1) If there is no international association of Quidditch, then Quidditch is not a real sport.

    P2) There is an international association for Quidditch.

    –––––

    C1) Quidditch is a real sport.

    (NB. the argument is invalid.)

     

  • Edward ‘Blackbeard’ Teach was the most feared of all pirates, so Bartholomew ‘Black Bart’ Roberts was not as feared as Edward Teach.

    P1) Edward ‘Blackbeard’ Teach was the most feared of all pirates.

    P1) Bartholomew ‘Black Bart’ Roberts was a pirate.

    –––––

    C1) Bartholomew ‘Black Bart’ Roberts was not as feared as Edward ‘Blackbeard’ Teach.

     

  • Harry likes Ron and Ron likes Hermione, so Harry must like Hermione.

    P1) Harry likes Ron.

    P2) Ron likes Hermione.

    –––––

    C1) Harry likes Hermione.

    (NB. the argument is invalid.)

     

  • If Blackbeard had not been killed, we would be able to find his hidden treasure. But alas he was killed, so we won’t be able to find his hidden treasure.

    P1 If Blackbeard had not been killed, we would be able to find his hidden treasure.

    P2) Blackbeard was killed.

    –––––

    C1) We won’t be able to find Blackbeard’s hidden treasure.

    (NB. the argument is invalid.)

     

  • All men are mortal. Fido is mortal, so Fido must be a man.

    P1) All men are mortal.

    P2) Fido is mortal.

    –––––

    C1) Fido is a man.

    (NB. the argument is invalid.)

     

  • Either Edward Teach or Bartholomew Roberts was killed fighting on the coast of Africa. Edward Teach was killed off the coast of the Carolinas, so Roberts must have been killed off the coast of Africa.

    P1) Either Edward Teach or Bartholomew Roberts was killed fighting on the coast of Africa.

    P2) Edward Teach was not killed fighting on the coast of Africa.

    –––––

    C1) Bartholomew Roberts was killed fighting off the coast of Africa.

     

  • You have to be pretty desperate to try online dating sites. John has signed up for OKCupid, so he must be pretty desperate.

     P1) If you try an online dating site, then you are pretty desperate.

    P2) John tried an online dating site.

    –––––

    C1) John is pretty desperate.

     

  • Whenever Bob has been recently drinking, he staggers about like a wounded elephant. He seems to be walking properly right now, so he can’t have been drinking recently.

    P1) If Bob has been drinking, then he staggers.

    P2) Bob is not staggering.

    –––––

    C1) Bob has not been drinking.

     

  • For this year’s NBA most valuable player award we are looking for the person who either scored the most points in the season or who was the most effective player for his team overall. The winner, LeBron James, was the most effective player for his team overall, so therefore LeBron James was not the person who scored the most points in the season.

    P1) If you are the NBA MVP then you either scored the most points in the season or were the most effective player for your team overall.

    P2) LeBron James was the NBA MVP.

    P3) LeBron James was the most effective player for his team overall.

    –––––

    C1) LeBron James did not score the most points in the season.

    (NB. the argument is invalid: the ‘or’ is inclusive.)

     

  • If shoes don’t have a swoosh on them, then they aren’t Nike shoes. These shoes have a swoosh on them, so they must be Nike shoes.

    P1) If shoes do not have a swoosh, then they are not Nike shoes.

    P2) These shoes have a swoosh.

    –––––

    C1) These shoes are Nike shoes.

    (NB. the argument is invalid.)

     

  • James Harden has a beard like Gandalf from The Lord of the Rings. Gandalf is a wizard, so James Harden must play for the Washington Wizards.

    P1) James Harden has a beard like Gandalf from TheLord of the Rings.

    P2) Gandalf from The Lord of the Rings is a wizard.

    –––––

    C1) James Harden must play for the Washington Wizards.

    (NB. the argument is invalid.)

     

  • Look, either Gandhi or Citizen Kane is worth watching. Citizen Kane is definitely worth watching, so Gandhi must not be worth watching.

    P1) Either Gandhi is worth watching or Citizen Kane is worth watching.

    P2) Citizen Kane is worth watching.

    –––––

    C1) Gandhi is not worth watching.

    (NB. the argument is invalid.)

     

  • I think the best film ever made is Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein, so I don’t think that Abbott and Costello Meet the Killer, Boris Karloff is as good.

    P1) I think the best film ever made is Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein.

    P2) Abbott and Costello Meet the Killer, Boris Karloff is a different film.

    –––––

    C1) I don’t think that Abbott and Costello Meet the Killer, Boris Karloff is as good a film as Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein.

    (NB. the argument is invalid: epistemic fallacy.)

     

  • The UK media hates Newcastle. Even when Newcastle United are the best team in the league, they are never first on the sports news.

     P1) When Newcastle United are the best team in the league, they are never first on the sports news.

    P2) If a team is not first on the sports news when they are the best team in the league, then the UK media hates that team.

    –––––

    C1) The UK media hates Newcastle United.

     

  • If you’re a pirate, then you must have a ship. Captain Stubing has a ship, so Captain Stubing must be pirate.

    P1) If you are a pirate, then you have a ship.

    P2) Captain Stubing has a ship.

    –––––

    C1) Captain Stubing is a pirate.

     

  • No basketball player less than six feet in height can execute a slam dunk. Barack Obama cannot execute a slam dunk, so he cannot be a basketball player.

    P1) No basketball player less than six feet in height can execute a slam dunk.

    P2) Barack Obama cannot execute a slam dunk.

    –––––

    C1) Barack Obama is not a basketball player.

     (NB. the argument is invalid.)

     

  • It’s pointless to fear death because the dead cannot feel anything, and that means that the dead cannot suffer.

    P1) The dead cannot feel anything.

    P2) If you cannot feel anything, then you cannot suffer.

    –––––

    C1) The dead cannot suffer.

    P3) If the dead cannot suffer, then it is pointless to fear death.

    –––––

    C2) It is pointless to fear death.

     

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