Black Women Entrepreneurs
It is perhaps unremarkable to say that African American women's participation in business developed slowly since Africans first began arriving in North America in the sixteenth century. However, when one considers the terrible legacy of slavery, the travesty of the Jim Crow era, and the continuing struggle for women's rights, it is striking to note that even before the civil rights movement of the 1960s a number of black women had become successful businesswomen, despite the fact that for centuries the United States had been frustratingly pro-male and pro-white. The earliest African American female entrepreneurs based their businesses around domestic services such as sewing, cooking, or cleaning. In time, though, the possibilities grew to encompass sales of health and beauty aids, investment in real estate, ownership of restaurants and boarding houses, the foundation of banks and other financial institutions, and a host of other endeavors.
Today African American women are found serving as the CEOs of multimillion dollar corporations, controlling companies that pioneer new exciting technologies, and commanding media empires whose influence spans the globe. These women have reached the heights of success in the business world through hard work and focus, a willingness to innovate and embrace change, and a determination not to be cowed by the obstacles in their path. To honor their achievements, this month the editors of the African American Studies Center present profiles of some women who succeeded in business by really trying.
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...Q. What is Entrepreneurship? Answer: Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur or "one who undertakes innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods". This may result in new organizations or may be part of revitalizing mature organizations in response to a perceived opportunity. Entrepreneurship involves bringing about change to achieve some benefit. This benefit may be financial but it also involves the satisfaction of knowing you have changed something for the better. It is essentially the act of creation requiring the ability to recognize an opportunity, shape a goal, and take advantage of a situation. Entrepreneurs plan, persuade, raise resources, and give birth to new ventures. The most obvious form of entrepreneurship is that of starting new business (referred as Startup Company); however, in recent years, the term has been extended to include social and political forms of entrepreneurial activity. When entrepreneurship is describing activities within a firm or large organization it is referred to as intra-preneurship and may include corporate venturing, when large entities spin-off organizations. Entrepreneurship involves being resourceful and finding ways to obtain the resources required to achieve the set objectives. Capital is one such resource. Entrepreneurship is often associated with uncertainty, particularly when it involves creating something new for which there is no existing market...
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...What is your personal theory of entrepreneurship? My theory of entrepreneurship is the gift/objective of being able to see opportunity when others cannot so as to establish new ventures or the creation of new value in existing ones. According to Schumpeter’s (1934) view of entrepreneurship wealth is created when innovation results in new demand. In finding innovative ways of using inputs he theorises that the value of the product or service will exceed the cost of input factors thus generating superior returns that result in the creation of wealth. In line with this he says that destruction of old ways of doing things through innovation is key to entrepreneurial activities and GDP growth. This is supported by Kirzner’s (1973) theory of entrepreneurship of “alertness to hitherto undiscovered opportunities” and the action in the market economy of arbitrage and the value this can create. Who becomes and entrepreneur and why? According to Gartner (1985), “the entrepreneur is not a fixed state of existence; rather entrepreneurship is a role that individuals undertake to create organisations”. In this way one can understand how complex the matter of answering the question of who becomes and entrepreneur and why. Gartner believes that using a behavioural approach scholars are able to separate the act of entrepreneurship from the individual entrepreneur and so methodologies and techniques can be developed to discover correlations between the two factors. When looking at the......
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...houses etc. after gaining the initial success. The entrepreneurs studied in this survey had the sense of perceiving opportunities around them and utilized them gainfully. It was seen that once an entrepreneur commits himself to a job or task, he absorbs himself fully in performing this task. These people have will power, self-confidence, creativity adaptability etc. Though Papanek(1969) found that the people of this region have risk taking capability, Sadeq (1989) stated that in Bangladesh, risks and uncertainty discourage potential entrepreneurs from undertaking highly profitable and socially desirable new ventures. He also comments that there is a shortage of experienced entrepreneurs in the country, which is unfavorable for entrepreneurship development in the country. Another important finding of his study is that as the religion of most of the people in this country is Islam, Islam provides inspiration for entrepreneurial activity. Rahman (1993) found that the attributes of an entrepreneur could be instinctive, as well as, taught by educational institutions. Begum (1993b) in her study of entrepreneurs in engineering industry focused on the nature of small units started by relatively youthful entrepreneurs. Prior experience in engineering units, self-motivation and confidence influenced them to venture into new business. In 44% cases, the first generation entrepreneurs came from families engaged in agriculture. It is observed that there is no relation between......
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...Entrepreneurship The business I chose is “Recycled Jewelry” basically it is jewelry made from recycled materials and it would be made by hand. The business aims to develop eco-conscious lifestyle and encourage an eco-friendly routine. Market size: Recycled jewelry business is mainly suitable for the feminine gender, as well this product targets low and medium class and all women are a target, Competition: because this business idea is relatively new and unique to our region, there is almost no direct competition as there are no recycled jewelry shops operating in the country. However there are some indirect competition and this gives the recycled jewelry business an advantage as there are no direct competition in the market. Industry: knowing that the recycled jewelry industry is fairly small sized and relatively new and did not exist decades ago, I couldn’t find an exact figure as a result of that. However this type of business is more common in the western world as there are more eco-conscious individuals. Trends: in this business it is important to keep up with new trends and focus on that to attract customers, as females in this society aims to keep up with trends influenced by the western world, the jewelry pieces will regularly keep up with the changing trends to avoid shift in customers interest and meet their demand. Costs: since the products would be made from recycled materials and the tools used to make these products are simple the cost would be......
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...Sample Survey on Status of Women Entrepreneurs In Bangladesh 1. Background of the Survey 1.1 Women in Bangladesh Bangladesh is a resource-limited and overpopulated country where society is highly stratified, services and opportunities are determined by gender, class and location. However, women make nearly half of the population (Table -1), which means huge potential to be utilised for socio -economic development of the country. Table -1 Population Status of Bangladesh Census From 1998 Total Male Female 1262000 64819000 61381000 00 Share at Total Population Share at Total (%) Population (%) 51.48% 49.52% 51.36% 48.64% Source: Statistical Pocketbook, Bangladesh ’99, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1999, Page 85. Total 10631500 0 Sex and Age-based Structure of the Population (Table-2) shows that like the male population of the country, the women represent a vast resource for the country. They must be provided equal opportunity in education, employment and economic activities, only then this resource could be utilised properly. Table -2 Sex and Age-based Structure of the Population 1996 Age-base Group Total Population (%) Male Population (%) Female Population (%) 10-14 Years 12.6 12.52 11.58 15-19 Years 8.52 8.41 8.65 20-24 Years 8.40 7.60 9.25 25-29 Years 6.10 7.92 9.11 30-34 Years 4.25 6.10 6.10 35-39 Years 3.25 5.87 5.14 40-44 Years 2.89 4.40 4.09 Source: Statistical Pocketbook, Bangla desh ’99, Bangladesh Bureau of......
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...By Mashell Chapeyama Entrepreneurship education How the World Economic Forum aims to approach education The world economic Forum is a global organization that has a target of improving the welfare of all citizens of the world. According to this organization, entrepreneurship is a very important vehicle for achieving a better well-being of all people of the world. There are several ways in which the World Economic Forum wishes to achieve such a noble goal. One way it strives to achieve that is through some educational programs on the importance of entrepreneurship to the future generations of the world. Entrepreneurship is important for the well being of us all. So, the World economic Forum is initiating education on the importance of entrepreneurship and how to become successful business people. It wishes to be part of an international effort of encouraging entrepreneurship at all levels, from local, national, regional and global ones. World Economic Forum believes that through entrepreneurship the Millennium development goals will be achieved. The World Economic Forum aims to come up with ways to consolidate the existing education on entrepreneurship around the world. It wishes to uplift the practices that lead to better enterprising as well as assisting in the development of tools and methods of achieving better entrepreneurial skills, expertise and practices. This forum also aims at making sound and practical recommendations to governments, educational institutes......
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...1. Introduction In the 21st century, beauty and make up are like the wheels of a cart or the two sides of a coin. Women are beautiful in themselves; but a little make-up does help a lot and it keeps one to make the day better and happier. Every woman wants to be pretty whether she’s young or old so the beauty salon is the place to go. The beauty parlor has become an almost iconic figure in Western culture and Southeast Asian culture as well as in modern generation. The beauty salon is where a woman goes to have their hair and nails done. As such, choosing a beauty salon is a process most women (and even men) will undergo. The first thing to start in choosing a salon is to evaluate what needs to be done. A woman who just wants her hair trimmed might go to a beauty parlor than women who wants a permanent coloring, or more extensive services. If a woman wants her hair cut promptly and that day, she might be better off visiting to a walk-in salon, more willingly than trying to find her regular stylist. For other kind of services, a woman might want to think about a full-service in by-appointment-only beauty parlor. This signifies that she will have a stylist who is expecting her and definitely knows what she wants to be done. Genesis Beauty Parlor has been established by six individual people who have formed partnership under the Partnership Act 1932. According to the agreement all the partners will invest equal amount of money as well as bear the equal amount profit/losses......
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Women Entrepreneurship as a Barrier to Success in Bangladesh
...activities (UNDP, 2004). Women in Asian countries like India, Myanmar and Bangladesh have played and also are playing a good role in politics. So, Bangladeshi women are enjoying freedom to join politics as well as business. But compared with the Unites States and the European countries, the number is still poor. In fact, women entrepreneurship development is a challenging phenomenon in Bangladesh as women are lagged behind (economically and socially) compared to men. Generally, women are more victimized as because of their illiteracy, unawareness, unorganized, powerless or less political representation, deprivation, rigid social customs, religious constrains and injustice by their counter partners particularly in rural area. Women constitute about a half of the total population in Bangladesh. So for proper representation of women in the arena of entrepreneurship development, "women should constitute 50 per cent of the country's total entrepreneurs." But the ground reality is totally different. "The ratio is not even 10 per cent. The actual ratio is much lower than that. We do not know the exact number of women entrepreneurs in the country,” There is no real information on how many women entrepreneurs exist in the country. 1 Background In Bangladesh women entrepreneurs are coming up. If the last 10 years are taken into account, it will be clear that the number of women entrepreneurs has increased significantly. But the ratio of women entrepreneurs to their......
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...1 LESSON- 1 ENTREPRENEUR AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Dr. Jyotsna Sethi STRUCTURE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Entrepreneurship as a Career Option 1.3 Concepts and Definitions 1.3.1 Entrepreneur 1.3.2 Entrepreneurship 1.3.3 Enterprise 1.3.4 Difference between Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship 1.4 Role of Entrepreneurship in Economic Development 1.4.1 Entrepreneurship and Economic Development 1.4.2Entrepreneurship and Education 1.5 Functions of an Entrepreneur 1.6 Innovation 1.7 Risk and Uncertainty Bearing 1.8 Organization 1.9 Functions Performed by an Imitator Entrepreneur 1.10Entrepreneur vs. Manager Relationship 1.11 Summary 1.12 Glossary 1.13 Self-Assessment Questions 1.14 Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTION Do you know that there are millions of unemployed youth in the country and by the time you graduate, this number would have increased substantially? Do you want to be part of that group which keeps knocking from pillar to post, checking with employment exchanges, relatives, friends, and neighbours and still not able to get a job to their liking and then settle for a second or third rate job? You can also choose to be like Mr. Patel of Nirma who was a chemist’s assistance and has a Rs. 2500 crore company today. Did you know that the original Mr. Bata was a cobbler? And now has stores in more than 30 countries all over the world. Or...
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...WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF INDIA. A report prepared on the topic with the help of the below mentioned studies: * Empowering Women through Entrepreneurship: A study in Tamil Nadu, India -Geetha Sulur Nachimuthu and Barani Gunatharan. * Entrepreneurship Challenges and Opportunities in India - Dr.N. Santhi and S. Rajesh Kumar. * Some Critical Issues of Women Entrepreneurship in Rural India -VIJAY KUMBHAR (Department of Business Economics Dhananjayrao Gadgil, College of Commerce, India). * Women Entrepreneurship in India: Opportunities and Challenges- Gurendra Nath Bhardwaj, Swati Parashar, Dr. Babita Pandey. * Women Empowerment through Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of Guwahati Municipal Corporation- Marami Das, Faculty Member, Swadeshi Academy Jr. College Research Scholar, CMJ University, Shillong . INTRODUCTION: Women, the female member of the family is the backbone of emotional support who holds the family together. Social and economic development of women is necessary for the welfare of the society and also the Nation in turn. India being a well male dominated country, women are always considered backward and are not allowed to have various privileges. Many religions, even today, do not allow the women of the family to communicate with the rest of the world. Development of women would prove to be very positive in development of the Nation. The term “entrepreneurship” comes from the French verb “entreprendre” and the German word......
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...Disability in Uganda By Rebecca Namatovu1, Samuel Dawa, Fiona Mulira and Celestine Katongole Makerere University Business School Kampala, Uganda ICBE-RF Research Report No. 31/12 Investment Climate and Business Environment Research Fund (ICBE-RF) www.trustafrica.org/icbe Dakar, July 2012 1 Contact: email@example.com This research was supported by a grant from the Investment Climate and Business Environment (ICBE) Research Fund, a collaborative initiative of TrustAfrica and IDRC. It’s a working paper circulated for discussion and comments. The findings and recommendations are those of the author(s), and do not necessarily reflect the views of the ICBE-RF Secretariat, TrustAfrica or IDRC Executive Summary This report addresses entrepreneurship activity among Persons with Disability in Uganda and their potential to contribute to economic development. Data was collected from Entrepreneurs with Disabilities (EWDs) in Kampala using mixed methods research. In the study we sought to answer questions about the environment, business activities EWDs are involved in, attitudes towards business, their motivations, challenges and growth aspirations. Key findings were that the majority of the EWDs are involved in retail trade. Most of them had started their own businesses using their own savings and had previously closed a business because it wasn’t profitable. Most of their businesses weren’t registered because they said they didn’t need to yet the majority of those whose......
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...Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling • • • Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Operating System Concepts 6.1 Basic Concepts • Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming. • CPU–I/O Burst Cycle – Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. – Example: Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts – In an I/O – bound program would have many very short CPU bursts. – In a CPU – bound program would have a few very long CPU bursts. Operating System Concepts 6.2 1 CPU Scheduler • The CPU scheduler (short-term scheduler) selects from among the processes in memory that are ready to execute, and allocates the CPU to one of them. • A ready queue may be implemented as a FIFO queue, priority queue, a tree, or an unordered linked list. • CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process: 1. Switches from running to waiting state (ex., I/O request). 2. Switches from running to ready state (ex., Interrupts occur). 3. Switches from waiting to ready state (ex., Completion of I/O). 4. Terminates. • Scheduling under 1 and 4 is nonpreemptive; otherwise is called preemptive. • Under nonpreemptive scheduling, once the CPU has been allocated to a process, the process keeps the CPU until it releases the CPU either by terminating or by switching to the waiting state. Operating System Concepts 6.3 Dispatcher • Dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short-term scheduler;...
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...society, Andheri (East), Mumbai – 400 093. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Arati Sachidanand Mishra of M.Com. Semester III (2014–2015) has successfully completed the project on “Success Story of an Entrepreneur- Kiran Mazumdar” under the guidance of Prof. Mahalaxmi Ramaprasad. Project Guide: - ___________________ Course Co-Ordinator: - ___________________ External Examiner: - ___________________ Principal: - ___________________ DECLARATION I, Arati Sachidanand Mishra the student of M.Com.Semester III (2014-2015) hereby declare that I have completed the project on “Success Story of an Entrepreneur- Kiran Mazumdar” in the course (Entrepreneurship Management). The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge. References have been cited wherever necessary. Date: - ________ Place: - Mumbai ____________ (Arati Sachidanand Mishra) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Preparing the project on “Success Story of an Entrepreneur- Kiran Mazumdar” has given me extensive knowledge related to the course. I would like to first thank our Principal Dr. A.A.Rashid, for his valuable support in preparing this project. I express my deep sense of......
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Women Entrepreneurship in India
...Women are generally perceived as home makers with little to do with economy or commerce. But this picture is changing. In Modern India, more and more women are taking up entrepreneurial activity especially in medium and small scale enterprises. Even as women are receiving education, they face the prospect of unemployment. In this background, self employment is regarded as a cure to generate income .The Planning commission as well as the Indian government recognizes the need for women to be part of the mainstream of economic development. Women entrepreneurship is seen as an effective strategy to solve the problems of rural and urban poverty. Traditionally, women in India have been generally found in low productive sectors such as agriculture and household activities. Human Development Report 2004 ranks India 103 in Gender related Development Index (GDI). As per 2001 census; women constitute nearly half of India’s population. Out of this total, 72% were engaged in agriculture, 21.7% in other non agricultural pursuits with only 6.3% in household industries. Women entrepreneurs in India are handicapped in the matter of organizing and running businesses on account of their generally low levels of skills and for want of support system. The transition from homemaker to sophisticated business woman is not that easy. But the trend is changing. Women across India are showing an interest to be economically independent. Women are coming forth to the business arena with ideas......
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...Women In Entrepreneurship The Entrepreneurial Advantage Of Nations: First Annual Global Entrepreneurship Symposium United Nations Headquarters April 29, 2003 Maria Minniti, Ph.D. Pia Arenius 1 WOMEN IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP Maria Minniti, Ph.D. Babson College firstname.lastname@example.org Pia Arenius Helsinki University of Technology email@example.com In 1999 the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) program was initiated by Babson College and London Business School with sponsorship from the Kauffman Foundation to: • • • • Measure differences in the level of entrepreneurial activity between countries. Probe for a systematic relationship between entrepreneurship and national economic growth. Uncover factors that lead to higher level so of entrepreneurship. Suggest policies that may enhance the national level of entrepreneurial activity. Data were assembled for each participating country from four basic sources: 1) surveys of over a hundred thousand adults; 2) in-depth interviews with almost a thousand national experts on entrepreneurship; 3) standardized questionnaires completed by the national experts, and 4) a wide selection of standardized national data from such sources as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, United Nations and the like. The 37 countries participating in 2002 provides a truly global assessment of these issues. The Kauffman Foundation and the Business Council for the United Nations recently convened the first international policy discussion......
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